Title The Physics & Technology of Radiation Therapy, 2/e
Subtitle
Author Patrick N. McDermott, Colin G.Orton
ISBN 9781930524989
List price USD 165.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 870
Book size 191 x 254 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher Medical Physics Publishing (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status
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Description:

Introducing the 2nd edition of our highly respected radiation therapy textbook. It covers the field of radiation physics with a perfect mix of depth, insight, and humor.

The 2nd edition has been guided by the 2018 ASTRO core curriculum for radiation oncology residents. Novice physicists will find the book useful when studying for board exams, with helpful chapter summaries, appendices, and extra end-of-chapter problems and questions. It features new material on digital x-ray imaging, neutron survey meters, flattening-filter free and x-band linacs, biological dose indices, electronic brachytherapy, OSLD, Cerenkov radiation, FMEA, total body irradiation, and more.

Also included:

  • Updated graphics in full color for increased understanding.
  • Appendices on board certifications in radiation therapy for ABR, AART, and Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board.
  • Dosimetry Data
  • A full index


Contents:

Preface

Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Mathematics Review • Exponents • Multiplication • Division • An Exponential Raised to a Power • A Product Raised to a Power • Base e • Logarithms • Geometry • Trigonometry • Problems

Chapter 2: Review of Basic Physics • Units for Physical Quantities • Mechanics • Newton’s Second Law • Work • Work Energy Theorem and Energy Conservation • Power • Electricity and Magnetism • Charge and the Coulomb Force • Electric Fields • Current • Potential Difference • The Electron Volt: A Unit of Energy, Not Voltage • Magnetism • Electromagnetic Spectrum • The Special Theory of Relativity • Review of Atomic Structure • What is Radiation? • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 3: Atomic Nuclei and Radioactivity • Basic Properties of Nuclei • Four Fundamental Forces of Nature • Nuclear Binding Energy: Mass Defect • Stability of Nuclei • Antimatter • Properties of Nuclei and Particles • Radioactivity • Mathematics of Radioactive Decay • Activity • Sidebar: If You Know Calculus • Half-Life • Mean-Life • Modes of Decay • Alpha Decay • Electromagnetic Decay • Beta Decay • Decay Diagrams • Sources of Radionuclides • Naturally Occurring • Fission Byproducts • Neutron Activation • Particle Accelerators • Radioactive Equilibrium • Secular Equilibrium • Transient Equilibrium • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 4: X-ray Production I: Technology • Introduction • X-ray Tubes • Therapy X-ray Tubes • X-ray Film and Screens • Digital Imaging • X-ray Generator • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 5: X-ray Production II: Basic Physics and Properties of Resulting X-rays • Production of X-rays: Microscopic Physics • Characteristic X-rays • Bremsstrahlung Emission • X-ray Spectrum • Efficiency of X-ray Production • Directional Dependence of Bremsstahlung Emission • X-ray Attenuation • Beam Divergence and the Inverse-Square Effect • Attenuation by Matter • Half-Value Layer (HVL) • Mass Attenuation Coefficient • Appendix: Röntgen and the Discovery of X-Rays • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 6: The Interaction of Radiation with Matter • Photon Interactions with Matter • Coherent Scatttering • Photoelectric Effect • Compton Scattering • Pair Production • Photonuclear Reactions • Total Mass Absorption Coefficient • Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter • Electron Interactions with Matter • Stopping Power • Range • Mean Energy To Produce an Ion Pair • Heavy Charged Particle Interactions and the Bragg Peak • Neutron Interactions with Matter • Cerenkov Radiation • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 7: Radiation Quantities • Introduction • Exposure • Charged Particle Equilibrium • Some Important Radiation Dosimetry Quantities • Dose Buildup and Skin Sparing • Absorbed Dose to Air • Dose in a Medium Calculated from Exposure • An Example of Photon Interactions: History of a 5.0 MeV Photon in Water • Monte Carlo Calculations • Microscopic Biological Damage • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 8: Radiation Detection and Measurement • Introduction • Phantoms • Gas Ionization Detectors • Ionization Chambers • Charge Collection and Measurement • Survey Meter Ion Chambers • Proportional Counters • Geiger-Muller (GM) Counter • Solid-State Detectors • Thermoluminescent Dosimeters • Optically Stimulated Luminsescence Detectors • Film • Diodes • MOSFETs • Polymer Gels • Liquid Dosimeters • Calorimeters • Chemical Dosimetry • Neutron Survey Meters • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 9: Medical Linear Accelerators • Introduction • Accelerating Waveguides • Bending magnets • Sources of Microwave Power • The Treatment Head • X-ray Mode • Electron Therapy Mode • Field Shaping • Auxiliary Subsystems • Interlocks and Safety Systems • Patient Support Assembly • Photon Beam Characteristics • Flattening Filter Free Linacs • Sidebar: The Invention of the Cavity Magnetron • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 10: Central Axis Dose Distribution • Introduction • Percent Depth Dose (PDD) • Dependence of dm on Field Size and SSD • Tissue-Air Ratio (TAR) • Backscatter and Peak Scatter Factors • Tissue-Phantom Ratio (TPR) and Tissue- Maximum Ratio (TMR) • Ratios of Doses on the Central Axis • Equivalent Squares • Linear Interpolation • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 11: Calibration of Megavoltage Photon Beams • Normalization Conditions • Steps in Bearn Calibration • Ion Chamber Calibration • Beam Quality • The Task Group 51 Dose Equation • Calibration Conditions • An Example of TG-51 Calculations • Constancy Checks of Beam Calibration • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 12: Monitor Unit Calculations • Introduction • Normalization Conditions • Head Scatter and Phantom Scatter • MU Calculations for Open Fields • Percent Depth Dose Calculations (SSD=SAD) • Isocentric Calculations • Arbitary Distance Calculations • The Equivalence of PDD and TMR Calculations • MU Calculations for Shaped Fields 15 • Approximate Methods for Estimating the Equivalent Square of a Shaped Field • Clarkson Integration • Dose Rate Calculation for Shaped Fields at Points Away from the Central Axis • Dose Rate Calculations with Asymmetric Jaws • Dose Under a Blocked Region • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 13: Dose Distributions in Two and Three Dimensions • Isodose Charts • Skin Contour • Parallel-Opposed Fields • Adding Isodose Distributions • Beam Weighting • Wedges • Wedged Fields • Wedge Transmission Factor • Dose Rate Calculations with a Wedge Present • Multiple Beams • Arc or Rotation Therapy • Defining Target Volumes • Surface Dose • Bolus • Beam Spoilers • Tissue Compensators • Tissue Inhomogeneties • Field Matching • Patient Positioning and Immobilization Devices • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 14: Evaluation of Patient Dose Distributions • Introduction • Cumulative Dose-Volume Histograms • Biological Indices • Normal Tissue Complication Probability • Tumor Control Probability • Probability of Uncomplicated Control • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 15: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy • Introduction • IMRT Delivery Techniques • Inverse Treatment Planning • Fluence Map Optimization • Direct Aperture Optimization • Multi-Criteria Optimization • Practical Inverse Planning Issues • Intensity-Modulated Arc Therapy • Physics Plan Validation • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 16: Electron Beam Dosimetry • Introduction • Electron Applicators • Field Shaping • Dose Rate Calculations • Internal Blocking • Isodose Curves • Inhomogenities • Field Matching • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 17: Physical Principles of Brachytherapy • Introductoin • Review of Radioactivity • Radioactive Sources • High-Energy Gamma Ray Sources • Low-Energy Gamma Ray and X-ray Sources • Beta Sources • High Dose Rate Remote Afterloaders • Electronic Brachytherapy • Brachytherapy Applicators • Source Strength and Exposure Rate Constant • Dose Rate Calculations from Exposure Rate • Revised Specification of Source Strength • Source Calibration • Task Group 43 Dosimetry • Accumulated Dose from Temporary and Permanent Implants • Systems of Implant Dosimetry • A Point Source • A Linear Source Distribution • Planar and Volume Implants • Intracavitary Brachytherapy • Along and Away Tables • Localization of Sources • A Few General Treatment Planning Principles • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 18: Radiation Protection (with Cheryl Schultz) • Who Regulates What? • Dosimetric Quantities Use for Radiation Protection • Exposure of Individuals to Radiation • Biological Effects of Radiation • Carcinogenesis • Risk to Fetus/Embryo • Heritable Effects • Radiation Protection Principles • NRC Regulations • Security of Radiactive Sources • Annual Dose Limits • Medical License and General Requirements • Written Directives and Medical Events • Examples of Events Reported to the NRC • Radiation Protection for Brachytherapy Procedures • NRC Safety Precautions for HDR Afterloader Units • Personnel Monitoring • Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Packages • Package Labels • Receipt of Radioactive Packages (NRC Regulations) • Shielding for Linear Accelerators • Primary Barriers • Secondary Barriers • Neutrons • The Entryway • Radiation Protection Survey of a Linear Accelerator • Using a Survey Meter • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography • Sidebar: The Confusing Landscape of Radiation Protection

Chapter 19: Imaging in Radiation Therapy • Introduction • Digital Images • Image Quality • Computed Tomography • Development of CT Scanners • CT Image Reconstruction • CT Numbers and Hounsfield Units • Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs • Virtual Simulation • 4D CT • Magnetic Resonance Imaging • Image Fusion/Registration • Ultrasound Imaging • Functional/Metabolic Imaging • Imaging for Treatment Localization and Verification • Portal Images and Electronic Poetal Imaging Devices • Image-Guided Radiation Therapy • Imaging Dose • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 20: Special Modalities in Radiation Therapy • Introduction • Stereotactic Radiosurgery/Radiotherapy • Introduction • Linac-Based Radiosurgery • Gamma Knife • Imaging • Treatment Planning • Dosimetry • Quality Assurance • Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) • Total Body Irradiation (TBI) • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 21: Physical Quality Assurance and Safety • Introduction • Radiation Therapy Accidents • New York Times Reports, 2010 • A Linear Accelerator Calibration Error • An HDR Accident • Malfunction 54 • Co-60 Overdose • Safety Culture and Department Management • Proactive QA: Failure Modes and Effects Analysis • Equipment Quality Assurance • Linear Accelerators • NRC Regulations Pertaining to QA • Specific Requirements for Remote Afterloading Units (HDR) • Treatment Planning Systems • Dosimetry Instrumentation • Patient Quality Assurance • Physics Chart Checks • Weekly Physics Chart Checks • Imaging • In Vivo Dosimetry • Mold Room Safety • Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Chapter 22: Proton Therapy Physics • Introduction • Advantages of Protons • Proton Therapy Accelerators • Cyclotrons • Synchrotons • Beam Spreading and Field Shaping • Passive Scattering • Active Scanning • Beam Delivery/Transport • Treatment Planning and Dose Distributions • Effect of Inhomogeneities • Calibration and Routine Quality Assurance • Radiation Safety • Future Developments • Chapter Summary • Problems • Bibliography

Appendix A: Board Certification Exams in Radiation Therapy • The American Board of Radiology (ABR) Radiation Oncology Resident Training Guidelines for Medical Physics • The American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (AART) • Medical Dosimetrist Certification Board

Appendix B: Dosimetry Data • Equivalent Squares for Rectangular Fields • Percent Depth Dose Data, 4 MV • Percent Depth Dose Data, 10 MV • Percent Depth Dose Data, 15 MV • Tissue- Air Ratio (TAR), 6 MV • Tissue-Maximum Ratio (TMR), 10 MV • Some Radiation Therapy Isotopes

Appendix C: Mevalac Beam Data • Scatter Correction Factors • 6 MV Percent Depth Dose • 18 MV Percent Depth Dose • 6 MV TMR Data • 18 MV TMR Data • 6 MV SMR Data • 6 MV Off-Axis Ratios (OARs) •18 MV Off-Axis Ratios (OARs) • 6 MV Wedge Factors • 18 MV Wedge Factors • Percent Depth Dose for Electron Beams • Electron dm values • Electron Applicator Factors

Appendix D: Answers to Selected Problems

Index


Target Audience:

Radiation oncologists, medical physicists, radiation therapists and oncology nurses.

 
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