Title Exports to Jobs
Subtitle Boosting the Gains from Trade in South Asia
Author Erhan Artuc, Gladys Lopez-Acevedo, Raymond Robertson, Daniel Samaan
ISBN 9781464812484
List price USD 45.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 210
Book size 178 x 254 mm
Publishing year 2019
Original publisher The World Bank
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
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South Asia’s economy has grown rapidly, and the region has made a significant reduction in poverty. However, the available jobs for the growing working population remain limited. Policy makers are contending with lingering concerns about jobless growth and poor job quality.

Exports to Jobs: Boosting the Gains from Trade in South Asia posits that exports could bring higher wages and better jobs to South Asia. The report uses a new methodology to estimate the potential impact from higher South Asian exports per worker on wages and employment. It finds that increasing exports per worker would result in higher wages, mostly for the better-off groups—like better-educated workers, men, and more-experienced workers—although less-skilled and rural workers would benefit from new job opportunities outside of the informal sector.

The report also shows that to spread the benefits from higher exports widely, policies are needed to raise skills and get certain groups, such as women and youth, into more and better jobs. Complementary measures include removing trade barriers, investing in infrastructure, and increasing the ability of workers to find higher-paying jobs. Together, these actions would help South Asian countries spread the gains from being closely integrated into the global economy through exporting.

This book, which is the product of a partnership between the International Labour Organization and the World Bank, contributes to our understanding of the impact that growing exports can have on increasing well-being, and it bridges the gap between academic research and policy making.




About the Contributors


Overview • Key Messages • South Asian Paradox • A New Approach • Effect of an Increase in Exports on Local Labor Market Outcomes • Policies to Spread the Gains from Exports • Notes • References

Chapter 1: The South Asian Paradox • Key Messages • Introduction into Global Value Chains • Trade and Growth: A Virtuous Cycle • Potential South Asian Gains from Greater Export Orientation • What the South Asian Paradox Portends • Notes • References

Chapter 2: Labor Market Challenges and Export Patterns in South Asia • Key Messages • Introduction • Labor Market Conditions and Policy Priorities • Trends in South Asian Trade • Conclusion • Annex 2A. Informality • Annex 2B. Job Creation in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka • Annex 2C. Wage Regressions for India • Notes • References

Chapter 3: The Methodology • Key Messages • Conceptual Underpinnings • Literature Review of Methodology • Quantifying a Positive Demand Shock to Exports: The Case of India • Trade Exposure Index • Conclusion • Annex 3A. Trade Exposure • Notes • References

Chapter 4: How Export Shocks Affect Local Labor Markets • Key Messages • Introduction • How Exports Affect Income, Jobs, and Wages • Big Mobility Issues at the Industry Level • Exports Have a Bigger Impact in Some States • How Our Results Compare with Others • Export Shocks and Labor Markets in Sri Lanka • Conclusion • Annex 4A. Detailed Regression Results • Notes • References

Chapter 5: Spreading the Labor Market Gains from Exports • Key Messages • Introduction • Option 1: Increasing the Scale of Exports • Option 2: Changing the Composition of Exports to Help Disadvantaged Groups • Option 3: Changing the Composition of the Workforce to Help Disadvantaged Groups • Suggestions for Tackling Obstacles to Higher Exports • Conclusion • Annex 5A. The Impact of Different Types of Export Shocks on Specific Groups in India and Sri Lanka • Annex 5B. Examples of Trade Adjustment Assistance Programs • Notes • References

Appendix A: Literature Review: Trade and Local Labor Markets • How Trade Affects Labor Market Outcomes • Location, Location, Location: Why Local Labor Markets Matter • Notes • References

Appendix B: Entangled Workers and Shared Prosperity in South Asian Labor Markets: Construction of Databases • General • Bangladesh • India • Sri Lanka • Notes

Appendix C: Developed Economies

Appendix D: Developing Economies

About the Authors:

Erhan Artuc is a senior economist in the World Bank’s Development Research Group (Trade and International Integration Team). Before joining the World Bank in 2011, he was a faculty member at Koc University in Istanbul, Turkey, where he taught international trade, microeconomics, and macroeconomics classes. He received a BA in 2001 from Bilkent University, Ankara, and a PhD in 2006 from the University of Virginia, both in economics. His research focuses on international trade policy and its effects on labor markets. He has studied the distributional effects of trade liberalization on workers from different age, education, and human capital groups; timing of trade policy; occupational and sectoral mobility of workers; unemployment; and changes in skill premium in response to trade shocks and discount window borrowing from central banks. His research papers have appeared in the Journal of International Economics, American Economic Review, and other academic or policy journals.

Gladys Lopez-Acevedo is a lead economist at the World Bank in the Poverty and Equity Global Practice for the South Asia and MENA regions, working in the areas of trade, welfare, gender, conflict, and jobs. Previously, she was a lead economist in the World Bank Chief Economist’s Office for the South Asian region (SARCE), and senior economist in the World Bank Central Vice Presidency Poverty Reduction and Economic Management (PREM) unit and in the Latin America region at the World Bank. She is a research fellow of the Institute for Labor Economics and at the Mexican National Research System. Prior to joining the World Bank, she held high-level positions in the Government of Mexico and she was a professor at the Instituto Tecnológico Autónomo de México (ITAM). She holds a BA in economics from ITAM and a PhD in economics from the University of Virginia.

Raymond Robertson holds the Helen and Roy Ryu Chair in Economics and Government in the Department of International Affairs at the Bush School of Government and Public Service at Texas A&M University. Robertson is also a research fellow at the Institute for the Study of Labor in Bonn, and he currently chairs the U.S. Department of Labor’s National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of the U.S. Free Trade Agreements. He is a member of the Center for Global Development’s advisory board.

Daniel Samaan is a senior economist at the Research Department of the International Labour Organization (ILO) in Geneva. He has been working on the impacts of globalization and technology on international labor markets. Recent publications include analyses of the effectiveness of labor provisions in free trade agreements, and research for the ILO’s Future of Work Initiative, which discusses the effects of artificial intelligence on the world of work. Daniel worked previously at the economic policy research center, SCEPA, in New York City. He holds a PhD in economics from the New School of Social Research in New York, as well as a master’s degree in economics and business administration from the University of Passau in Germany.

Target Audience:

This book will be useful to people interested in Economic Transformation, Poverty Reduction and Job Creation.

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