Title Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan
Subtitle International Development in Focus
Author Izabela Leao, Mansur Ahmed, Anuja Kar
ISBN 9781464812651
List price USD 37.50
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 142
Book size 216 x 279 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher The World Bank
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan,   primarily through supporting job creation, improving productivity, and promoting inclusiveness. Applying an “agricultural jobs lens” and multidimensional approach, Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan explores the  sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current job structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are concentrated in cereal agriculture, especially in wheat, reflective of the differences in the relative returns of activities within agriculture. Second, it analyzes the inclusive nature of agriculture jobs for vulnerable groups such as women, youth, the landless, and the bottom 40 percent of income earners. The analysis finds that although agriculture jobs are inclusive, many women and youth participate as voluntary family workers because they are unable to access markets and/ or find paid jobs in the nonfarm sector. Third, the report evaluates the role of public and private sector interventions in supporting job creation in agriculture, arguing that interventions can work and that there is significant scope to scale them up.

Overall, Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan exhibits many insights about the state of Afghanistan’s rural labor market and provides guidance for formulating effective job-creation policies for the rural population. The key recommendations provide a pathway to achieving sustained and inclusive job growth through diversification toward high-value crops and livestock, linking farmers to markets through continued investment in connectivity and rural infrastructure, a balanced development strategy for an enabling environment for farm and nonfarm sectors, and strengthening the private sector presence in agriculture and its linkage with the public sector to agribusiness.


Foreword by Nasir Ahmad Durrani

Foreword by Juergen Voegele and Shubham Chaudhuri


About the Authors


Executive Summary • Summary Messages • Policy Recommendations • Policy Focus on Improving the Design Structure of Jobs Measurement in Agriculture and Rural Development

Chapter 1: Jobs and Agriculture Nexus in Fragile Contexts • Introduction • Study Context and Background • Agriculture and Job Creation in the Context of Fragility in Afghanistan • Relevance of Agriculture to Job Creation and Labor Markets • Approach and Methodology • Afghanistan Economic Performance in a Regional Context • Annex 1A: Microdata Used in the Analysis—NRVA 2011–12 and ALCS 2013–14 • Notes • References

Chapter 2: Employment Patterns in Rural Afghanistan • Introduction • The Nature, Types, and Sectoral Distribution of Rural Employment • Agriculture in Afghanistan: A Viable Sector for Job Creation? • Annex 2A • Notes • References

Chapter 3: Employment, Skills, and Human Capital • Introduction • Education and Training for Rural Employment: Human Capital Dynamics and Structure for More and Better Jobs in Rural Areas • Youth Workers: Their Employment Dynamics in Rural Afghanistan • Inclusive Jobs in Rural Afghanistan: Employment Dynamics of the Landless, Women, and the Bottom 40 Percent of Income Earners • Annex 3A • References

Chapter 4: Evidence-Based Practice Recommendations for Jobs in Agriculture • Introduction • Partnerships and Donor Coordination in the Agriculture Sector • The Private Sector’s Role in Agriculture Development • Assumptions and Risks for the Effectiveness of Development Interventions in Job Creation • Jobs from Public Sector Interventions: Evidence from World Bank Projects • Jobs from Private Sector Interventions: Evidence from Omaid Bahar Fruit Processing Limited • Annex 4A • Notes • References

Chapter 5: Summary and Policy Recommendations • Summary Messages • Policy Recommendations • Improving the Design Structure of Jobs Measurement in Agriculture and Rural Development

Boxes • Figures • Maps • Tables

About the Authors:

Izabela Leao is a Rural Development Specialist in the Agriculture Global Practice of the World Bank, where she works on analytical and operational tasks in the areas of jobs and agriculture, rural economy, youth employment, innovation and entrepreneurship, and conflict/fragility. She joined the World Bank as   Young Professional in 2013 and has since been focusing her work on Afghanistan, Bhutan, and India. She has also worked on the Arab Republic of Egypt, Belarus, Côte d’Ivoire, Nepal, Pakistan, Tajikistan, and Myanmar. Prior to joining the World Bank Group, she spent five years at the United Nations, working on programs in the prevention of transnational organized crime and on programs of disarmament, demobilization and reintegration—focusing on economic reintegration of young ex-combatants, with a particular focus on skills training and employment creation in Colombia, Nepal, and Sierra Leone. Additionally, in 2011, she cofounded a nonprofit organization in Sierra Leone focused on improving the lives of marginalized youth through educational and life skills training. Leao holds a master’s degree in history and political science from Pittsburgh State University, focusing on social protection policy for victims of transnational human trafficking, and a doctorate in political science from University of Milan, Italy, focusing on youth agency, state collapse, and unemployment in Sierra Leone.

Mansur Ahmed is an Agriculture Economist in the World Bank’s Agriculture Global Practice, where he works on analytical and operational tasks in the areas of agriculture and food security, rural nonfarm economy, and rural jobs. His research interests include econometric and statistical modeling, productivity and efficiency analysis, poverty and social impact analysis, impact evaluation, and inclusive jobs in the context of developing countries. Over the past few years, he has worked extensively in the areas of agricultural productivity, rural jobs, and rural nonfarm economy in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, China, India, Mali, and Myanmar. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked at the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies and at the South Asia Network on Economic Modeling in Bangladesh. He holds bachelor’s and master’s degrees in economics from the University of Dhaka, and a doctorate in economics from North Carolina State University.

Anuja Kar joined the World Bank’s Agriculture Global Practice as an Economist in June 2015. She is currently engaged with the Global Agriculture and Food Security Program as an Economist/Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist. Prior to joining the Agriculture Global Practice, Kar spent two years (also within the Bank) building econometric models using household- and farm-level surveys for Bangladesh, India, and Sri Lanka. Her key areas of focus are food security, agriculture productivity, labor markets, and foreign direct investment. Before joining the development sector, she worked in a private institution for two years, where her primary responsibilities included covering the Philippines’ macroeconomics and developing macroeconometric models and tools for emerging markets. She holds a master’s degree with distinction in public policy from the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, specializing in food  security in Asia, and a master’s degree in economics from the University of Calcutta, with majors in advanced economic theory (honors) and econometrics.

Target Audience:

People interested in Agriculture and Development.

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