Title The Urban Rail Development Handbook
Author Daniel Pulido, Georges Darido, Ramon Munoz-Raskin, Joanna Moody
ISBN 9781464812729
List price USD 65.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 798
Book size 184 x 242 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher The World Bank
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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The Urban Rail Development Handbook offers both planners and political decision makers a comprehensive view of one of the largest, if not the largest, investment a city can undertake: an urban rail system. The handbook properly recognizes that urban rail is only one part of a hierarchically integrated transport system, and it provides practical guidance on how urban rail projects can be implemented and operated in a multimodal way that maximizes benefits far beyond mobility. The handbook is a must-read for any person involved in the planning and decision making for an urban rail line.”

—Arturo Ardila-Gomez, Global Lead, Urban Mobility and Lead Transport Economist, World Bank

The Urban Rail Development Handbook tackles the social and technical challenges of planning, designing, financing. procuring, constructing, and operating rail projects in urban areas It is a great complement to more technical publications on rail technology, infrastructure, and project delivery This handbook provides practical advice for delivering urban megaprojects, taking account of their social institutional, and economic context.”

—Martha Lawrence, Lead, Railway Community of Practice and Senior Railway Specialist, World Bank

“Among the many options a city can consider to improve access to opportunities and mobility, urban rail stands out by its potential impact. as well as its high cost. Getting it right is a complex and multifaceted challenge that this handbook addresses beautifully through an in-depth and practical sharing of hard lessons learned in planning. implementing, and operating such urban rail lines, while ensuring their transformational role for urban development.”

—Gerald Ollivier, Lead, Transit-Oriented Development Community of Practice, World Bank

“Public transport, as the backbone of mobility in cities supports more inclusive communities, economic development, higher standards of living and health. and active lifestyles of inhabitants while improving air quality and liveability. Synthesizing and disseminating international good practices and hands-on examples, this handbook will help decision makers to consider the key issues associated with successful urban rail projects to help unleash the potential of metropolitan areas.”

—Dionisio Gonzalez, Director of Advocacy and Outreach, International Association of Public Transport

“The knowledge and experience in this handbook facilitate understanding different perspectives and objectives relevant to the development of urban rail projects Operators of existing urban rail systems can use this handbook as a tool to strengthen their institutions and services. Practitioners and decision makers may use this document to advance new projects to achieve important results with grounded understanding on what makes sense from diverse viewpoints The handbook is written in a style that is approachable for many audiences, with dear recommendations followed by real-world examples.”

—Juan Antonio Marquez Picon, International Business Development Manager, Metro de Madrid


Cities across the globe are looking to develop affordable, environmentally friendly, and socially responsible transportation solutions that can meet the accessibility needs of expanding metropolitan populations and support future economic and urban development. When appropriately planned and properly implemented as part of a larger public transportation network, urban rail systems can provide rapid mobility and vital access to city centers from surrounding districts. High-performing urban rail services, when carefully approached as development projects, can help enhance quality of life by giving citizens access to employment opportunities, essential services, urban amenities, and neighboring communities.

The purpose of this Handbook is to synthesize and disseminate knowledge to inform the planning, implementation, and operations of urban rail projects with a view towards:

Emphasizing the need for early studies and project planning;

Making projects more sustainable (economically, socially, and environmentally);

Improving socioeconomic returns and access to opportunities for users;

Maximizing the value of private participation, where appropriate; and

Building capacity within project implementing and managing institutions

This Handbook provides experiential advice to tackle the technical, institutional, and financial challenges faced by decision makers considering urban rail projects. It brings together the expertise of World Bank staff and the input of numerous specialists to synthesize international ‘good practices’ and recommendations that are independent of commercial, financial political, or other interests. The material presented is intended as an honest-broker guide to maximize the impact and manage the challenges of urban rail systems in cities in both developed and developing countries.

Rather than identify a single approach, this Handbook acknowledges the complexities and context necessary when approaching an urban rail development by helping to prepare decision makers to ask the right questions, consider the key issues, perform the necessary studies, apply adequate tools, and learn from international good practice all at the right time in the project development process.




About the Editors and Authors


Chapter 1. Introduction (Joanna Moody, Georges Darido, Ramon Munoz-Raskin, and Daniel Pulido) • Objectives • Structure • Value for Readers • Key Cross-Cutting Messages • Note • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 2. Urban Rapid Transit as an Opportunity for Sustainable and Inclusive Development (Georges Darido and Joanna Moody) • Socially Inclusive Urban Transport • Urban Transport and Low-Income Residents • Urban Transport and Women • Urban Transport and People with Reduced Mobility • Conceptual Framework: The Four “As” • Availability • Data and Analytical Tools for Addressing Availability • Addressing Availability throughout the Project Development Process • Accessibility • Data and Analytical Tools for Addressing Accessibility • Policy Tools for Addressing Accessibility • Affordability • Data and Analytical Tools for Addressing Affordability • Policy Tools for Addressing Affordability • Acceptability • Addressing Acceptability during Project Planning and Design • Addressing Acceptability during Operations • Potential Unintended Effects of Rapid Transit Project Development • Ensuring That Urban Rapid Transit Projects Work for All • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 3. Deciding Whether to Develop an Urban Rail Project (Georges Darido, Joanna Moody, and Slobodan Mitric) • Diagnostic Studies of Urban Transport • Demand-Side Diagnostic Activities • Supply-Side Diagnostic Activities • Demand Modeling • The Traditional Four-Step Model • Strategic or Sketch Models • Demand Modeling in Low- and Middle-Income Countries • Using the Demand Outputs • Development of an Integrated Urban Mobility Strategy • Generation of Investment Alternatives • Typical Alternatives • Level of Design of Alternatives • Evaluation of Alternatives • Economic Evaluation • Multicriteria Analysis • Financial Analysis • Fiscal Analysis • Reviewing the Results • Dealing with Uncertainty in the Evaluation of Alternatives • Sensitivity Analysis • Probabilistic Approaches • From a Study to a Decision • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 4. Project Management Planning (Ramon Munoz-Raskin, Joanna Moody, and Edward Fleischman) • Project Management Organization • The Core Project Management Team • The Role of Consultants • Internal Capacity Building for the Implementation of Urban Rail • The Importance of Communication • The Importance of Continual Benchmarking • Fundamental Project Management Planning Tools • Project Scope • Budget and Cost Control • Schedule Control • Risk Management • Project Management Planning throughout the Project Development Process • Planning Management • Design Management • Construction Management • Start-Up, Testing, and Short-Term Operations • Medium- and Long-Term Operations and Maintenance • Conclusions and Recommendations • Note • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 5. Designing an Urban Rail Project (Georges Darido, Joanna Moody, and Wenyu Jia) • Key Challenges in Urban Rail Design • Design Standards • Designing for the Capacity Needed in the Long Term • Trade-Off s and Interdependencies among Design Features • Multimodal Integration of Urban Rail Design • Design Features and Options • Infrastructure and Civil Works • Rolling Stock • Systems • Capital Cost Estimation • Key Drivers of Capital Costs • Methods for Cost Estimation • Allocation of Cost Estimation Responsibilities • Variability of Capital Costs • Exogenous Cost Drivers • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 6. Project Optimization (Edward Fleischman, Ramon Munoz-Raskin, and Joanna Moody) • Project Optimization through the Project Development Process • Optimization by Project Staff : Value Analysis • Risk Analysis • Life-Cycle Cost Analysis • Optimization Involving External Experts • Peer Reviews • Value Engineering • Constructability Reviews • Operability Reviews • Alternative Contracting Strategies • Design-Build • Public-Private Partnerships • Conclusions and Recommendations • Note • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 7. Managing Risks (Daniel Pulido and Ramiro Alberto Ríos) • Managing Risks in Urban Rail Projects • Risk Identification • Risk Assessment • Risk Mitigation • Risk Allocation or Transfer • Treatment of Retained Risks • Risk Monitoring • Key Potential Risks in Urban Rail Projects • Multistep Risks • Precontractual Risks • Site Risks • Design, Construction, and Commissioning Risks • Operational Risks • Transferring Risk through a PPP • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 8. Procuring the Project (Daniel Pulido and Joanna Moody) • Procurement Strategy • Spectrum of Project Delivery Models • Design-Bid-Build or Traditional Procurement • Construction Manager at Risk • Design-Build • Design-Build-Finance • Engineering, Procurement, and Construction or Turnkey Contracting • Public-Private Partnerships • Choosing the Best Project Delivery Model • Project Drivers • Project Owner Drivers • Legal and Regulatory Drivers • Market Drivers • Risk Drivers • Choosing a Compensation Mechanism • Fixed Price • Reimbursable Price • Guaranteed Maximum Price • Choosing and Designing the Tender Process • Choosing the Tender Process • Designing the Tender Process • MDB Procurement Requirements • Conclusions and Recommendations • Annex 8A. Qualification Requirements and Results for Recent Urban Rail Project Procurements • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 9. Structuring Public-Private Partnerships (Daniel Pulido and Cledan Mandri-Perrott) • PPP Experience in Urban Rail • Early Private Participation in Urban Rail Projects: Cautionary Tales • Recent Private Participation in Urban Rail Projects • Rationale for Using a PPP • Value for Money • Complementing Constrained Public Resources • Institutional Capacity for Implementing PPPs • The Private Participation Spectrum • Operations and Maintenance Concessions • Vertically Integrated PPPs • The PPP Process Cycle • Preparation • Implementation and Procurement • Contract Management • The PPP Project Structure • Structuring of Project Scope • One or More Contracts: Bundling versus Unbundling • Contract Term • Structuring Risks • Structuring Compensation • Payments during Construction or Public Cofinancing • Payments during Operations • Other Compensation Provisions • Performance Management and Control • Specifying Performance Targets and Weighting Key Performance Indicators • Tying Performance Specifications to Payments • Conclusions and Recommendations • Annex 9A. Allocation of Risks Related to Public-Private Partnerships for Urban Rail Development Projects • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 10. Maximizing Funding and Financing (Daniel Pulido and Cledan Mandri-Perrott) • Funding versus Financing • Sources of Funding • Government Revenues • Fare Revenues • Nonfare Commercial or Ancillary Revenues • Land Value Capture • Other Revenues • Private versus Public Financing • Public Financing • Municipal or Subnational Finance • Green Bonds • National Government Finance • Official Development Finance • Government-Backed Securities or Structured Public Financings • Tax Exemptions • In-Kind Contributions • Private Financing • Equity Investors • Commercial Banks • Capital Markets (Institutional Investors) • Financing PPPs in Urban Rail • Public Cofinancing • Private Financing • Bankability • Credit Support and Enhancement Instruments • Inside the Contract • Outside the Contract • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 11. Preparing for Construction (Sofía Guerrero Gámez, Joanna Moody, and Ramon Munoz-Raskin) • Prerequisite Studies • Geotechnical Site Investigation • Environment, Health, and Safety Review • Social Impact Assessment • Roles of the Project-Implementing Agency • Land Acquisition and Sequence of Works • Stakeholder Management and Community Engagement • Building Technical Capacity within the Project-Implementing Agency • At-Grade Urban Rail Construction • Special Considerations for At-Grade Systems • Construction Method for At-Grade Systems • Elevated Urban Rail Construction • Special Considerations for Elevated Systems: Use of Understructure Space • Construction Method for Elevated Systems • Underground Urban Rail Construction • Special Prerequisite Studies for Underground Systems • Construction Methods for Underground Systems • Choosing the Appropriate Construction Method for Underground Segments • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 12. Institutional Set-Up and Governance of Urban Rail (Georges Darido and Joanna Moody) • Transportation Governance for the Metropolitan Region • Institutional Framework for Urban Rail Implementation and Operations • The Authority • The Project-Implementing or Managing Agency • The Operator • Success Factors in Setting Up Urban Rail Institutions • Assessing the Institutional Framework Early and Thoroughly • Focus on Project Structuring • Transitioning from Project Development to System Operation • Embedding Operational Knowledge in the Authority and Agency • The Importance of Technical and Political Leadership • Encouraging Institutional Adaptability • Spectrum of Organizational Structures for Urban Rail Operators • Public Operator • Public Corporations • Partial Privatization • Private Operator • Empowering the Operator • Clear Responsibilities and Performance Objectives • Financial Sustainability • An Effective Governance Framework with Autonomy • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 13. Ensuring Operational and Financial Sustainability (Georges Darido, Joanna Moody, and Wenyu Jia) • Operations Service Planning • Special or Occasional Service Planning • Staffing and Crew Scheduling • Performance Monitoring for Operations • Establishment of Operations Performance Indicators and Collection of Data • Determination of Reporting Frequency • Effective Synthesis and Communication of Results • Asset Management • Asset Management Needs and Process • Asset Inventory • Asset Needs Prioritization • Maintenance Management • Types of Maintenance Approaches • Staffing and Facilities • Dedicated Maintenance Windows • Fiscal Management • Recurring Costs • Operating Revenues • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References

Chapter 14. Addressing Social Impacts of Urban Rail Projects (Carlos T. Pérez-Brito) • Social Impacts of Urban Rail Projects • Land Acquisition and Resettlement • Economic Displacement • Visual Impacts • Cultural Heritage • Gentrification and Changes in Neighborhood Composition • Methods for Assessing and Mitigating Social Impacts • Environment and Social Impact Assessment • Environmental and Social Management Systems • Environmental and Social Management Plans • The Importance of Stakeholder and Community Engagement • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 15. Environment, Health, and Safety Management (Robert Montgomery) • Environment, Health, and Safety in Project Planning and Design • Alternatives Analysis • Environmental Sustainability • EHS Project Costs and Financial Risk Management • Environment, Health, and Safety Impact and Risk Assessment • Environmental and Social Impact Assessment • Potential EHS Impacts and Risks • Environment, Health, and Safety Management • EHS Management Plan • EHS Management System • EHS Monitoring and Supervision Programs • EHS Roles and Responsibilities • EHS Reporting • Bids, Contracts, and Contract Management • Adaptive EHS Management • Conclusions and Recommendations • Annex 15A. Details on Specific ESMP Programs in Urban Rail Projects • Note • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 16. Improving Accessibility and Shaping Urban Form (Felipe Targa and Jean Paul Vélez) • Thinking of Urban Rail Systems Beyond Improving Mobility • Regional Accessibility • Local Accessibility • Universal Accessibility • Capitalization of Accessibility Benefits • Transit-Oriented Development: Capitalizing on Attributes That Generate Value • TOD Typologies • Applying the “3V” Approach • TOD and Value-Generating Strategies • Overcoming Barriers to TOD Implementation • Barriers to TOD Implementation • TOD and Gentrification • Using Land Value Capture to Deliver TOD • Toward TOD Implementation: Building a Support Coalition • Local Community Engagement • Political Champion(s) • Private Sector Involvement • Social Inclusivity • Conclusions and Recommendations • Notes • References • Additional Reading

Chapter 17. Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience in Urban Rail Projects (Juliet Mian, Matthew Free, Áine Ní Bhreasail, and Savina Carluccio) • How Climate and Natural Hazards Affect Urban Rail Systems • Impact of Climate and Natural Hazards on Physical Rail Infrastructure • Recognizing the Potential for Cascading Failures • Predicting or Forecasting Climate and Natural Hazard Events • Dealing with Uncertainty • Learning from Historical Events • Risk Assessment • Valuing Resilience • Embedding Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience in Urban Rail Institutions • Embedding Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience in Urban Rail Projects during Planning • Selecting a Resilience Strategy • Resilience Measures • A Systems Approach to Urban Railway Planning • Urban Rail System Performance Requirements • Vulnerability Assessments • Criticality Assessment • Embedding Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience in the Design and Construction of Urban Rail • Embedding Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience into Operation and Maintenance • Asset Management and Maintenance • Operational Preparedness and Response • Coordination with Stakeholders for Resilient Rail Development and Operations • Roles of the Public Sector • Roles of the Private Sector • Role of Academia • Communication with the Public • Tools for Addressing Climate and Natural Hazard Resilience • Conclusions and Recommendations • Annex 17A. Geophysical, Hydrological, Meteorological, and Climatological Hazards and Their Impacts on Urban Rail • Notes • References • Additional Reading • Other Resources


About the Editors:

Daniel Pulido is a senior infrastructure specialist at the World Bank. In this role, he has led the preparation and implementation of lending and advisory engagements focused on promoting private participation in urban mobility and logistics, primarily in Eastern Europe and Latin America. He has published research on public-private partnerships in transport and sustainable urban mobility. In 2018, he was selected to be part of the first cohort of the World Bank Presidential Fellows Program, an institutional initiative aimed at promoting innovative approaches to leveraging private sector solutions for sustainable development. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked at Goldman Sachs and at European banks Dexia and Depfa, specializing in the financing of transport and energy infrastructure. His experience includes transaction structuring, financial analysis, and credit evaluation for public-private partnerships and project and municipal financings. He has also worked in transportation policy and development issues as part of previous positions at the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. He is a graduate of the University of Pennsylvania, where he obtained a master’s degree in business administration from the Wharton School and a master’s degree in international studies from the School of Arts and Sciences. Daniel also holds a master’s degree in economics from the American University in Washington, DC.

Georges Darido is a lead urban transport specialist for the World Bank, based in Washington, DC. He has more than 16 years of experience as a practitioner and team leader of urban mobility plans, public transport projects, and transport investments in several countries in Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America. He has also led technical assistance and advisory activities for the public sector in transport planning and policy, sector reforms, and public-private partnerships. Prior to joining the World Bank in 2007, he was a management consultant for Booz Allen Hamilton, a senior research associate for the Center for Urban Transport Research at the University of South Florida, and a traffic engineer. He holds a master’s degree in transportation systems from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, a master’s degree in economics and management from Scuola Enrico Mattei (Italy), and a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from University of Central Florida. He is a licensed professional engineer in the United States.

Ramon Munoz-Raskin is a senior transport specialist with the World Bank. He works with local and national governments leading transport reforms. He leads activities in the urban transport sector, including support for national urban transport programs, mass transit, urban mobility planning, and nonmotorized transport programs. He also leads work in the roads and intercity-freight rail sectors. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked in the Americas and Europe, holding positions with the Inter-American Development Bank, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT), academia, the private sector (construction and consulting), and the World Resources Institute. At the USDOT, he was a team leader for the Federal Transit Administration’s New Starts program, which provides funding and technical assistance to urban mass transit projects, and later a regional manager for the Federal Railroad Administration’s High Speed and Intercity Passenger Rail program. He has authored multiple peer-reviewed journal publications and blogs on transport planning, policy, and economics. He is a member of the Transportation Research Board’s Committee for Transportation in the Developing Countries and a founder of the Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship for Sustainable Transport and Energy Efficiency.

Joanna Moody is a consultant at the World Bank and a PhD candidate in transportation at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where she manages two research projects as part of the Energy Initiative Mobility of the Future consortium. Her doctoral research measures social status bias (car pride and bus shame) and how it relates to travel behavior and transportation planning. This research was awarded the Lee Schipper Memorial Scholarship in 2017. While completing her master’s degree in transportation, she served as the senior research assistant for a three-year research program with East Japan Railway Company that focused on understanding high-speed rail projects as sociotechnical systems. Her master’s thesis was awarded the Council for University Transportation Centers’ Charley V. Wootan Memorial Award for outstanding master’s thesis in planning and policy in 2016. She also received a University Transportation Center Fellowship in 2014 and Eisenhower Graduate Fellowships in 2015 and 2016 from the U.S. Department of Transportation. She is a member of the Transportation Research Board’s Committee for Transportation in the Developing Countries.

Target Audience:

The handbook is a must-read for any person involved in the planning and decision making for an urban rail line.

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