Title Soft and Stiffness-controllable Robotics Solutions for Minimally Invasive Surgery
Subtitle The STIFF-FLOP Approach (River Publishers Series in Automation, Control and Robotics)
Author Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Helge Wurdemann, Ali Shafti, Ali Shiva, Kaspar Althoefer
ISBN 9788793519725
List price USD 106.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 352
Book size 165 x 235 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher River Publishers (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Soft and Stiffness-controllable Robotics Solutions for Minimally Invasive Surgery presents the results of a research project, funded by European Commission, STIFF-FLOP: STIFFness controllable Flexible and Learn-able manipulator for surgical Operations.

In Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS), tools go through narrow openings and manipulate soft organs that can move, deform, or change stiffness. There are limitations on modern laparoscopic and robot-assisted surgical systems due to restricted access through Trocar ports, lack of haptic feedback, and difficulties with rigid robot tools operating inside a confined space filled with organs. Also, many control algorithms suffer from stability problems in the presence of unexpected conditions. Yet biological “manipulators”, like the octopus arm can manipulate objects while controlling the stiffness of selected body parts and being inherently compliant when interacting with objects. STIFF-FLOP robot is an innovative soft robotic arm that can squeeze through a standard MIS, reconfigure itself and stiffen by hydrostatic actuation to perform compliant force control tasks while facing unexpected situations.


Technical topics discussed in the book include:

     Soft actuators

     Continuum soft manipulators

     Control, kinematics and navigation of continuum manipulators

     Optical sensors for force, torque, and curvature

     Haptic feedback and human interface for surgical systems

     Validation of soft stiffness controllable robots




List of Contributors

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

PART I: Development of Silicone-based Stiffness Controllable Actuators

Chapter 1: Technology Selection (Matteo Cianchetti, Tommaso Ranzani, Giada Gerboni and
Arianna Menciassi) •
Manipulator Specifications • Medical Requirements • Technical Specifications • Technological Overview of Different Actuation Strategies • Active Motion Technology Survey • Electromagnetic motors • Electro active polymers • Shape memory alloys • Shape memory polymers • Flexible fluidic actuator • Discussion and Choice of Active Motion Technology • Stiffness Variation Technology Survey • Comparison and Choice • References


Chapter 2: Design of the Multi-module Manipulator (Tommaso Ranzani, Iris de Falco, Matteo Cianchetti and Arianna Menciassi) • The Design of the Single Module • Active Motion • Stiffness Variation • Connection of Multiple Modules • Complete Characterization of the 2-Module Manipulator • Fabrication • Workspace Evaluation • Methods • Results • Junction Characterization • Methods • Results • Stiffness Characterization • Methods • Results • Combined Force and Stiffening Experiments • Methods • Results • References

Chapter 3: Soft Manipulator Actuation Module - with Reinforced Chambers (Jan Fras, Mateusz Macias, Jan Czarnowski, Margherita Brancadoro, Arianna Menciassi and Jakub Glowka) • Introduction • Change of the Chamber Cross Section Area • Chamber Cross Section Center Displacement • Friction between the Silicone Body and Braided Sleeve • Sensor Interaction • Proposed Improvements • Possible Solutions • Design • Manufacturing • Tests • Pneumatic Actuation • Hydraulic Actuation • External Force • Stiffening Mechanism • Basic Module Design • Optimised Module Design • Conclusions • Acknowledgement • References

Chapter 4: Antagonistic Actuation Principle for a Silicone-based Soft Manipulator (Ali Shiva, Agostino Stilli, Yohan Noh, Angela Faragasso,
Iris De Falco, Giada Gerboni, Matteo Cianchetti, Arianna Menciassi, Kaspar Althoefer, and Helge A. Wurdemann) •
Introduction • Background • Bio-Inspiration and Contributions • Integration of the Antagonistic Stiffening Mechanism • Embedding Tendon-driven Actuation into a STIFF-FLOP Segment • Setup of the Antagonistic Actuation Architecture • Test Protocol, Experimental Results, and Discussion • Methodology • Experimental Results • Discussion • Conclusions • Funding • References

Chapter 5: Smart Hydrogel for Stiffness Controllable Continuum Manipulators: A Conceptual Design (Daniel Guevara Mosquera, S.M. Hadi Sadati, Kaspar Althoefer and Thrishantha Nanayakkara) • Introduction • Materials and Methods • Active Hydrogel Preparation • Active Hydrogel Properties and Ion Pattern Printing • Experiments and Discussion • Swelling Test • Stiffness Test • Conclusion and Future Works • References


PART II: Creation and Integration of Multiple Sensing Modalities

Chapter 6: Optical Force and Torque Sensor for Flexible Robotic Manipulators (Yohan Noh, Sina Sareh, Emanuele Lindo Seeco and Kaspar Althoefer) • Introduction • Materials and Methods • Sensor Design Rational • Sensor Configurations • Results and Discussion • Conclusions • References

Chapter 7: Pose Sensor for STIFF -FLOP Manipulator (Sina Sareh, Yohan Noh, Tommaso Ranzani, Min Li and Kaspar Althoefer) • Introduction • Design of the Pose-sensing System • Pose-sensing in a One Segment STIFF-FLOP Arm • The Flexible Steiner Chain Section • Design of a Low-friction Retractable Distance Modulation Array • Loopback design of the optical system • Steel spring-needle double slider • Fabrication and Assembly of the Pose-sensing System • Sensor Calibration and Benchmarking • Calculation of the Bending Curvature in a Two-segment Arm Based on Collocated Cables • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 8: The STIFF-FLOP Vision System (Erwin Gerz, Matthias Mende and Hubert Roth) • Introduction • Optical Tracking of the STIFF-FLOP Arm • Axios Measurement System Cambar B2 • The Endoscopic Camera System • Image Processing on Endoscopic Camera Images • Removal of specular reflections • Improvement of the dynamic range • Detection of the STIFF-FLOP Arm in the Camera Image using Machine Learning Algorithms • Detection of the Module Connection Points of the STIFF-FLOP Arm • Registration of the Endoscopic Camera Image to the STIFF-FLOP Arm • Integration and Validation of the Implemented Methods • Conclusion • Acknowledgements • References


PART III: Control, Kinematics and Navigation

Chapter 9: Inverse Kinematics Methods for Flexible Arm Control (Anthony Remazeilles, Asier Fernandez Iribar and Alfonso Dominguez Garcia) • Introduction • On the Inverse Kinematics Problem for Continuum Robots • Single Insertion Point Constraint in Minimally Invasive Surgery • Contributions Presented • Inverse Kinematics Framework • General Framework • Application to the STIFF-FLOP Structure • Configuration Space of the Flexible Modules • STIFF-FLOP Base Motion with Single Insertion Point Constraint • Secondary Tasks through Redundancy • Control of the chamber lengths • Control of the interaction with the environment • Inverse Kinematic Experimentations • Fixed Base, Various Module Representation • Inverse Kinematics Involving the Base under Single Point Insertion Constraint • Illustration of the Secondary Tasks • Conclusion • References

Chapter 10: Modelling and Position Control of the Soft Manipulator (Jan Fras, Mateusz Macias, Jan Czarnowski and Jakub Glowka) • Introduction • Assumptions • Single Segment Model • External Forces • Analytical Issues • Inverse Kinematics • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 11: Reactive Navigation for Continuum Manipulator in Unknown Environments (Ahmad Ataka, Ali Shiva and Kaspar Althoefer) • Introduction • Modeling and Pose Estimation • Kinematic Model • Pose Estimation • Reactive Navigation • Electric-field-based Navigation • Magnetic-field-based Navigation • The Complete Algorithm • Results and Discussion • Discussion • Conclusion • Acknowledgment • References


PART IV: Human Interface

Chapter 12: The Design of a Functional STIFF-FLOP Robot Operator’s Console (Lukasz Mucha, Krzysztof Lis, Dariusz Krawczyk and Zbigniew Nawrat) • Introduction • Design of Improved Haptic Console • Second Version of STIFF-FLOP Console • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 13: Haptic Feedback Modalities for Minimally Invasive Surgery (Min Li, Jelizaveta Konstantinova and Kaspar Althoefer) • Introduction • Force Feedback • Experimental Setup to Validate the Experimental Tele-manipulator and the Force Feedback Platform • Evaluation of the Experimental Tele-manipulator and Force Feedback Platform • Visual Stiffness Feedback • Experimental Setup to Validate the Concept of Visual Stiffness Feedback • Evaluation of Visual Stiffness Feedback • Pseudo-haptic Tissue Stiffness Feedback • The Concept of Pseudo-haptic Tissue Stiffness Feedback • The Combined Pseudo-haptic and Force Feedback • Evaluation of Pseudo-haptic Stiffness Feedback • Haptic Feedback Actuators • Experimental Setup to Validate the Finger-tip Haptic Feedback Actuators • Evaluation Results of Finger-tip Haptic Feedback Actuators • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 14: Force Feedback Sleeve Using Pneumatic and Micro Vibration Actuators (Lukasz Mucha and Krzysztof Lis) • Introduction • Application of the Pneumatic Impact Interaction • Control • Applications of Electric Vibration Motors • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 15: Representation of Distributed Haptic Feedback Given via Vibro-tactile Actuator Arrays (Anuradha Ranasinghe, Ashraf Weheliye, Prokar Dasgupta, and Thrishantha Nanayakkara) • Introduction • Materials and Methods • Haptic Primitive Templates Generation • Experimental Procedure • Data Processing and Statistical Analysis • Experiment 1: To Understand How Humans Generalize a Gaussian Pattern in Scaling and Shifting • Experiment 2(a): To Understand How Humans can Recognize Trained Templates When they are Presented in a Random Order • Experiment 2(b): To Understand How Humans Can Recognize Trained Inverse Templates When They are Presented in a Random Order • Experiment 3: To Understand How Humans can Recognize Random Linear Combinations of Trained Primitive Templates Given by a Set of Discrete Vibro-Actuators on the Forearm • Results • Experiment 1 • Experiment 2(a) • Experiment 2(b) • Experiment 3 • Discussion • Acknowledgment • References

Chapter 16: RobinHand Haptic Device (Krzysztof Lis, Lukasz Mucha, Krzysztof Lehrich and Zbigniew Nawrat) • Introduction • The User Interface RobinHand • RobinHand in STIFF-FLOP Project • Operator-Robot Cooperation through Teleoperation and Haptic Feedback • Telemanipulation FCSD-UoS RobinHand H • Telemanipulation FCSD-PIAP RobinHand F • Telemanipulation FCSD-KCL RobinHand F • Integrating the Haptic Device RobinHand L with STIFF-FLOP Console • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References


PART V: Benchmarking Platform for STIFF-FLOP Validation

Chapter 17: Benchmarking for Surgery Simulators (Zbigniew Malota, Zbigniew Nawrat and Wojciech Sadowski) • Introduction • Testing and Training Station Description • The New Scaled Surgery Benchmarking Platforms • Sensorized Operation Site • The Scaled Surgery Benchmarking Platforms • The Virtual Reality Model • Conclusion • Acknowledgments • References

Chapter 18: Miniaturized Version of the STIFF-FLOP Manipulator for Cadaver Tests (Giada Gerboni, Margherita Brancadoro, Alessandro Diodato, Matteo Cianchetti and Arianna Menciassi) • Requirements for Manipulator Usability in Cadaver Tests • System Adaptation • System Modeling and Characterization Methods • Results of Characterization • Prototype for Cadaver Test (with Integrated Camera) • References

Chapter 19: Total Mesorectal Excision Using the STIFF-FLOP Soft and Flexible Robotic Arm in Cadaver Models (Marco Ettore Allaix,
Marco Augusto Bonino, Simone Arolfo, Mario Morino, Yoav Mintz and Alberto Arezzo) •
Introduction • Methods • Operative Technique • Results • Discussion • Conclusions • References


About the Editors


About the Editors:

Jelizaveta Konstantinova, Queen Mary University of London, UK

Helge Wurdemann, University College London, UK

Ali Shafti, Imperial College London, UK

Ali Shiva, King’s College London, UK

Kaspar Althoefer, Queen Mary University of London, UK.


Target Audience:

This book is useful for students and academicians of Automation and Robotics.

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