Title A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination
Author Alireza Bazargan
ISBN 9788793379541
List price USD 77.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 700
Book size 152 X 235 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher River Publishers (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
About the book Send Enquiry


Although more than 70% of the globe is covered with water, only a small portion is suitable for direct human use, making the scarcity of freshwater one of our planet’s most serious challenges. In this context “desalination”, defined as “the removal of salt from water”, is one of the possible solutions for overcoming our planet’s municipal and industrial thirst. 


By drawing upon the authoritative expertise of a remarkable team of international authors, this book aims to provide an encompassing and “multidisciplinary” introduction to various aspects of desalination. The forte of this publication is that it does not overtly focus on a particular sub-topic of desalination, but rather addresses the topic as a whole. In other words, the unique assortment of reader-friendly chapters is designed to strike a delicate balance between the technical and non-technical. 


The book is divided into five general sections:

  • The first section presents an overview of water scarcity, followed by a review of integrated water management and the alternatives to desalination. The fundamentals of desalination are provided, including simple water chemistry;
  • The second section covers the conventional technologies of today, including thermal and membrane desalination processes. The topics of pre- and post- treatment are given due credit, as no desalination plant can operate without them;
  • The third section reviews the history of how desalination technologies originated, including a review of today’s R&D activities and cutting edge research. The processes and engineering applied for membrane manufacturing are also presented;
  • Section four is concerned with energy and environmental issues, including the application of renewable and nuclear energy, minimization of energy usage and the water-energy-nexus, brine management, and environmental impacts;
  • Finally, section five covers the social and commercial issues, ranging from rural desalination, to the politics of desalination. Desalination costs and feasibility are presented, as well as issues in business development and the future market prospects.


Effectively, A Multidisciplinary Introduction to Desalination aims to be a holistic go-to-compendium for anyone seeking a balanced understanding of the various facets of desalination.


Foreword I • Foreword II • Preface • List of Contributors • List of Figures • List of Tables • List of Abbreviations

PART I. Introduction

Chapter 1: Water Scarcity: Where We Stand (Eric M. V. Hoek) • Introduction • Global Drivers and Trends • Climate Change • Urbanization • Water as a Human Right • Water and Conflict • “Food-Energy-Water” Nexus • Concluding Remarks • References

Chapter 2: Alternative Freshwater Solutions to Desalination (Arjen van Nieuwenhuijzen, Jaap Klein,
Cor Merks and Ebbing van Tuinen)
• Introduction • Background • Sustainable Alternatives to Desalination • Smart and Innovative Alternatives • Integrated Freshwater Management Solutions • Introduction • Solutions for Delta Areas and Seasonal Dry Areas in General • Solutions for Agricultural Areas • Solutions for Natural Reserves • Solutions for the Built Environment • An Integrated Solution: Freshwater Wetlands • Rainwater Harvesting: Capture and Use of Rain and Storm Water • Introduction and Principles • Benefits and Challenges of Rainwater Harvesting • Components of a Rainwater Harvesting System • Rainwater harvesting using natural components • Calculating the Potential of Rainwater Harvesting • Additional Information • Reclamation of Fresh Used Water (Greywater Reuse) • Introduction • Greywater Reuse • Used Water Treatment Technologies • Physical-chemical used treatment systems • Biological used water treatment systems • Concluding Remarks • References

Chapter 3: Fundamentals of Desalination Technology (Alireza Bazargan and Blanca Salgado) • Introduction • Definitions • Unit Operations • Desalination Technologies • Thermal (and Evaporative) Technologies • Multi-Stage Flash Distillation (MSF) • Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) • Thermal Vapor Compression (TVC) • Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) • Membrane Distillation (MD) • Freezing • Membrane Technologies • Reverse Osmosis (RO) • Forward Osmosis (FO) • Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) • Other Technologies • Hydrate Formation • Ion Exchange (IX) • Capacitive Delonizaiton (CDI) • Solvent Extraction • De-Humidification • Hybrid Systems • Conclusion • References

Chapter 4: Water Chemistry and Desalinated Water Quality (Alireza Bazargan, Amir Jafari and Mohammad Hossein Behnoud ) • Introduction • Boron • Bromide • Calcium and Magnesium • Fluoride and Other Supplements • Organics • Potassium and Sodium • The Carbonate System • Water Hardness • Sodium Adsorption Ratio • Acidity and Buffering Capacity • Corrosivity • Indexes • Conclusion • References

PART II: Unit Operations

Chapter 5: Thermal Processes (Ibrahim S. Al-Multaz) • Introduction • Multi-Effect Distillation (MED) • Types of MED Tube Arrangements • Horizontal tube arrangement • Vertical tube arrangement • Vertically stacked tube bundles • Conventional MED Process • Multi-Effect Distillation with Thermal Vapor Compression (MED-TVC) • MED-TVC process description • Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) • MSF Configurations • MSF Condenser Tube Configurations • MSF Process Description • Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) • Mechanical Vapor Compression (MVC) • Thermal Vapor Compression (TVC) • Other Thermal Processes • Freezing • Solar Desalination • Humidification-Dehumidification • Membrane Distillation • Direct Contact Membrane Distillation (DCMD) • Air Gap Membrane Distillation (AGMD) • Vacuum Membrane Distillation (VMD) • Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) • Operational Experience of Thermal Desalination Processes • Pretreatment and Scale Control • Efficiency of Thermal Desalination Processes • Design Experience of Large MSF and MED-TVC Plants • Impact of Non-Condensable Gases (NCG) • Material Selection • Maintenance Procedures • Evaporator Start-Up • References

Chapter 6: Membrane Desalination Technologies (Dongxu Van) • Introduction to Membrane Desalination Technologies • Reverse Osmosis • Introduction to RO Membrane Technology • Membrane Materials • Principles and Modeling of Membrane Systems • Membrane recovery • Permeate flux • Mass balance • Membrane permeation coefficient (A) and salt transport coefficient (B) • Membrane rejection • Trans-Membrane Pressure (TMP) • Net Driving Pressure (NDP) • Osmotic pressure • Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) • Silt Density Index (SDI) • RO Separation System Design • Restrictions of Membrane Application in Desalination • Concentration Polarization in Membrane Desalination • RO Membrane Pretreatment • RO Membrane Chemical Cleaning • RO Projection Software • Forward Osmosis (FO) • Introduction to FO Membrane Technology • Forward Osmosis Membranes and Modules • Draw Solutions for the FO Process • CP in FO Processes and FO Membrane Fouling • Advantages and Disadvantages of the FO Process • Electrodialysis (ED) and Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR) • Introduction to ED and EDR Technologies • ED/EDR Process Design • ED/EDR Membranes • Membrane Spacers • ED/EDR Electrodes • Comparison between ED/EDR and RO • References

Chapter 7: Pretreatment (Nikolay Voutchkov) • Introduction • Overview of Granular Media Filtration Technologies • Seawater Conditioning Prior to Granular Filtration • Seawater Pretreatment Prior to Filtration • Sedimentation • Dissolved Air Flotation • Selection of Granular Filter Media • Selection of the Type of Granular Media Filter • Removal of Algal Material from Seawater • Useful life of the Filter Structure • Solids Retention Capacity and Handling of Turbidity Spikes • Costs • Membrane Filtration Overview • Seawater Conditioning and Pretreatment Prior to Membrane Filtration • Considerations for Selecting Between UF and MF Pretreatment • Considerations for Selecting Between Pressure and Vacuum-Driven Membrane Filtration • Source Water Quality Variations • Construction Costs and Energy Requirements • Lessons Learned from Existing MF/UF Systems • Concluding Remarks • References

Chapter 8: Post-Treatment (Alireza Bazar-gan, Reza Mokhtari and Mohammad Shamszadeh) • Introduction • Post-Treatment Processes • Blending • Direct Dosage of Chemicals • Design Considerations for Ca(OH)2 + CO2 Systems • Limestone (Calcium Carbonate) Dissolution • Dolomite Dissolution • Disinfection • The CT Value • Comparison of Various Disinfection Methods • Residual Disinfection • Disinfectant Decay Kinetics • Conclusion • References

PART III: Science and Technology

Chapter 9: The Origins of Today’s Desalination Technologies (Dr. Jim Birkett) • Background • The First Tentative Steps • The Appearance of an Industry in the 1800s • The Early Twentieth Century - Evaporative Advancements • The Early Twentieth Century: Membrane Developments • The Influence of World War II • The 1950s • The 1960s • Post 1960s • References

Chapter 10: Research and Development Management (John Peichel and Alireza Bazargan) • Introduction • The Customer • The Invention • Patents • Models • Data • Time • The Business Aspect: Costs, Revenue, Profit • Conclusion • References

Chapter 11: Membrane Chemistry and Engineering (Steven Jons, Abhishek Shrivastava, Ian A. Tomlinson, Mou Paul and Abhishek Roy) • Introduction • Membrane Processes • Reverse Osmosis (RO) • RO membrane made by phase inversion • RO membranes made by interfacial polymerization • Nanofiltration • Forward Osmosis (FO) • Electrodialysis (ED) and Related Processes • Membrane Distillation (MD) • Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration • Configurations • Membrane Configurations • Flow Path Considerations • Module Configurations • Future Developments • References

Chapter 12: State-of-the-Art Desalination Research (Seyed Hamed Aboutalebi, Alexandros Yfantis and Nikolaos Yfantis) • Introduction • RO Technologies • Current State-of-the-Art Materials for Novel Membrane-Based Processes • Forward Osmosis (FO) • Aquaporin Membranes • Thermal-Based Processes • Membrane Distillation • Pervaporation (PV) • Novel Electrically-Driven Processes • Capacitive Deionization (CDI) • Microbial Desalination Cell (MDC) • References

PART IV: Energy and Environment

Chapter 13: Desalination Powered by Renewable and Nuclear Energy Sources (Veera Gnaneswar Gude) • Desalination Technologies and Renewable Energy Coupling Schemes • Global Overview • Solar Energy for Desalination • Direct Solar Desalination: Solar Stills • Indirect Solar Desalination Using Solar Collectors • Solar PV-RO • Wind Energy for Desalination • Geothermal Energy for Desalination • Wave Energy for Desalination • Nuclear Energy for Desalination • Experience with Nuclear Desalination • Conclusion and Selection Criteria • References

Chapter 14: Energy Consumption and Minimization (Konstantinos Plakas, Dimitrios Sioutopoulos and Anastasios Karabelas) • Introduction • Energy Issues in Desalination • Interrelation between Water and Energy • Energy Demand for Desalination • SEC in Membrane-Based Processes • Energy Consumption in RO Desalination • Technological Improvements to Minimize Losses and to Increase Energy Recovery • High efficiency pumps • Energy recovery devices • New generation membranes • Plant design and operation • Development of novel energy-efficient desalination technologies • Utilization of renewable energies • SEC in Thermal Processes • Technological Improvements to Increase Energy Efficiency • Dual-Purpose Power-Desalting Water Plants • SEC in Hybrid Systems • Renewable Energy (RE) Utilization for Water Desalination • Conclusions and Future R&D • References

Chapter 15: Brine Management (Christopher Bellona) • Introduction • Desalination Brine/Concentrate Characteristics and Disposal • Seawater Desalination • Brackish Water Desalination • Desalination for Potable Water Reuse • Technologies for Brine/Concentrate Treatment • Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration • Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal • Evaporation Ponds and Solar Evaporation • Distillation and Evaporation Systems • Membrane Distillation/Crystallization • Precipitation and Crystallization • Ion Exchange • Other Notable Processes • Implementation of Brine/Concentrate Minimization • Extraction of Constituents from Brine/Concentrate • Bromine • Calcium • Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide • Lithium • Magnesium • Nitrogen and Phosphorous • Potassium • Sodium • Other Notable Commodities • Economic Considerations • Conclusion • References

Chapter 16: Environmental Impacts of Desalination Plants (Karim Bourouni) • Introduction • Health Issues • Aesthetics and Water Stability • Blending Waters • Nutritionally Desirable Components • Chemicals and Materials Used in Water Production • Safety Issues • Environmental Impacts • Seawater Intakes and Pretreatment • Intakes • Pretreatment • Reject Streams and Outfalls (Impact of Brine Discharge) • Salinity • Temperature • Antifouling additives • Residual biocides • Coagulants • Antiscalants • Metals • Antifoaming agents (Thermal plants only) • Cleaning chemicals • Air Quality Impacts • Mitigating the Impact of Desalination on the Environment • Source Water Intake • Reject Streams • Energy Use • Site Selection for Impact Mitigation • Avoiding Possible Disturbances • Life Cycle Assessment of Desalination Technologies • LCA Methodology • Phase 1: Goal and scope definition • Phase 2: Life cycle inventory • Phase 3: Life cycle impact assessment • Phase 4: Interpretation • Main Results from Desalination LCA Studies • Conclusions • References

PART V: Social and Commercial Issues

Chapter 17: Rural Desalination (Leila Karimi and Abbas Ghassemi) • Introduction • Factors that Affect the Success of Rural Desalination Systems • Water Resources • Water Needs • Energy Sources • Technological Factors • Social Factors • Community involvement • Institutions and social power • Cultural issues • Gender issues • Religious issues • Economic Aspects • Case-Studies • Case Study of an Unsuccessful Project: Solar Stills on the  Greek Island of Kimolos • Case study of a successful project: Photovoltaic reverse osmosis in Ksar Ghilène, Tunisia • References

Chapter 18:  Society, Politics, and Desalination (David Zetland) • Introduction • Separating and Mixing Water • Political Groups and Separate Waters • Social Groups and Collective Costs and Benefits • Society, Politics, and Technology • Examples of Harmful and Helpful Desalination • Israel and Singapore • San Diego and Monterey • Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates • Desalination without Regret • References

Chapter 19: Desalination Costs and Economic Feasibility  (Jadwiga R. Ziolkowska) • Introduction • Definition and Breakdown of Desalination Costs • Capital Costs • Operational and Maintenance Costs • Disposal costs • Energy costs • Determining the Final Cost and Price of Desalinated Water • Predictions about Future Desalination Costs •  References

Chapter 20: The Business of Desalination (Tom Scotney and Simeon Pinder) • Introduction • Key Markets • The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) • Europe • Americas • Asia Pacific • Sub-Saharan Africa • Technology and Energy • Equipment and Innovation • Finance and Companies • Desalination Companies • Finance • Looking Forward • References


About the Editor

About the Editor:

Alireza Bazargan, Head of Research and Development, NVCo (Noor Vijeh Company), Iran.

Target Audience:

This book aims to be a holistic go-to-compendium for anyone seeking a balanced understanding of the various facets of desalination. Also useful for people working in the field of Chemical, Environmental, and Energy Engineering.

Special prices are applicable to the authorised sales territory only.
Prices are subject to change without prior notice.