Title Chlamydiae and Chlamydial Infections
Subtitle (River Publishers Series in Research and Business Chronicles: Biotechnology and Medicine)
Author Svetoslav P. Martinov
ISBN 9788793609518
List price USD 105.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 226
Book size 152 x 228 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher River Publishers (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Chlamydiae are a group of obligate intracellular microorganisms with a homogeneous group-specific antigenic structure, and a unique mode of development. The infections caused by them are unprecedented and wide-spread throughout the world, including a broad range of hosts among domestic and animal species and humans, and a variety of clinical manifestations. The uniqueness of chlamydia pathology consists mainly in the fact that the agents of the individual diseases are so close in their biological properties that they are represented only by the single genus Chlamydia, which includes all currently recognized species.


Although chlamydiae and chlamydial infections were discovered a long time ago, they are still under-researched and relatively unknown to broad circles of microbiologists, virologists, epidemiologists and clinicians. A number of issues relating to molecular biology, pathogenesis, mechanisms of Chlamydia development and their interactions with cells, as well as their genetic conditioning and regulation, remain unclear. The same is true for ambiguities, problems and contradictions related to epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, immunity and vaccines. Based on scientific facts and the analysis of literature, and the experience of the author, Chlamydiae and Chlamydial Infections attempts to shed light on the cited problems, in terms of modern microbiology, cell biology and molecular biology. The scientific topics discussed include:


  • Biological, morphological and antigenic properties of Chlamydia spp
  • Genes, genomic structure and genetic regulations
  • Conventional diagnostic methods and examinations
  • Detection and differentiation of Chlamydia organisms by DNA detection systems
  • Clinical forms and manifestations and drug therapy
  • Pathology
  • Epidemiological peculiarities of Chlamydia - induced diseases in animals and humans
  • Immunity and vaccines



List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations


Chapter 1: Historical Notes

Chapter 2: Nature of Chlamydial Organisms and Taxonomy

Chapter 3: Morphology, Mode of Development, and Interaction with the Cells • Morphology of Chlamydiae in Light Microscopy • Electron Microscopic Morphology • Initial Bodies, Condense Bodies, and Reticulate Bodies • Aberrant Forms, Chlamydial Membranes, and Miniature Particles • Fine Structure of Chlamydia Organisms • Mode of Development of Chlamydia in Chicken Embryos and Cell Cultures • Degenerative Changes in the Infected Cells • Morphological and Morphogenetic Features of Chlamydia in Clinical and Pathological Materials of Infected Animals and Humans • Light Microscopic Examinations • Electron Microscopic Examinations • Ultrastructure of Mammalian and Avian Chlamydia • Ultrastructure of Chlamydia trachomatis • Comparative Analysis of the Electron Microscopic Morphology of Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis • Morphogenetic Features of C. psittaci and C. trachomatis • Electron Microscopic Diagnostics of Chlamydiae • Morphology as a Method of Indication and Identification of Chlamydial Organisms • Interaction of Chlamydial Organisms with the Host Cell

Chapter 4: Genomic Structure, Genes, and Molecular Regulation of the Development of Chlamydiae

Chapter 5: Isolation and Cultivation of Chlamydia • Introduction • Chicken Embryos • Cell Cultures • White Mice • Guinea Pigs • Rabbits • Cats • Pigs • Primates • Other Animals • Identification of Chlamydial Isolates • Isolation of Chlamydia from Different Animal Species and Humans • Strains Isolated from Sheep • Abortions, premature births, stillbirths and non-viable lambs • Pneumonia in sheep • Conjunctivitis in sheep • Arthritis in sheep • Orchitis and orchiepididimytis • Strains Isolated from Goats • Abortions, stillbirths and non-viable kids • Pneumonia in goats • Arthritis in goats • Strains Isolated from Cattle • Abortions, stillbirths and non-viable Calves • Polyarthritis in calves • Keratoconjunctivitis • Latent chlamydial infection • Strains Isolated from Pigs • Pericarditis • Abortions • Other clinical conditions in Pigs • Strains Isolated from Dogs • Strains Isolated from Cats • Strains Isolated from Guinea Pigs • Strains Isolated from Birds • Strains Isolated from Humans • Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia pneumonia Chlamydia psittaci Chlamydia abortus

Chapter 6: Virulence and Pathogenicity

Chapter 7: Chlamydial Antigens and Antigenic Analysis • Genus-specific (Group-specific) Antigen • Species-specific Antigens • Sub-species (Type-specific) Antigens • Toxic Antigens • Non-specific Antigens • Antigenic Analysis

Chapter 8: Immunity and Antibodies • Introduction • Cellular Immunity and Immunomorphology • Humoral Immunity • Polyclonal Antibodies • Monoclonal Antibodies

Chapter 9: Serology • Serological Assays • Complement Fixation Test • Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay • Reaction Immunofluorescence • Other Serological Tests • Serological Examinations • Serological Examinations in Sheep • Serological status of Chlamydial infection in the sheep population in Bulgaria • Serological examinations in sheep with abortions and related conditions of the pathology of pregnancy • Serological examination of sheep respiratory diseases • Serological examinations of Rams • Serological Examinations in Goats • Serological status of Chlamydial infection among goats in Bulgaria • Serological examinations of goats with abortions, stillbirths, and deliveries of nonviable kids • Serological investigations in goats with pneumonia • Serological Examinations in Cattle • Serological status of Chlamydial infection among cattle in Bulgaria • Serological testing of cows with miscarriages, stillbirths, and births of nonviable calves • Serological examinations of bulls • Serological Examinations of Buffaloes • Serological Examinations in Pigs • Serological Testing of Horses • Serological Examinations of Dogs • Serological Survey of Cats • Serological Investigations in Birds • Chlamydiosis (ornithosis) in ducks • Chlamydiosis (ornithosis) in geese • Chlamydiosis (ornithosis) in hens • Psittacosis in parrots • Serological Examinations of Wild Mammals and Birds • Serological Examinations of Humans for Chlamydia spp • Infections with C. psittaci • Infections with C. trachomatis • Infections with C. pneumonia

Chapter 10: Detection and Differentiation of Chlamydia Microorganisms by DNA Detection Systems • Conventional PCR • Real-time PCR • Our Experience in the Development, Adaptation and Application of PCR Techniques • Normal (Conventional) PCR • REP-PCR in Chlamydiae of Different Species and Nosological Origin • REP-PCR. Comparative Analysis of Strains Chlamydia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Brucella and Representatives of a-1 (Rickettsiae) and a-2 Subdivisions of Proteobacteria • ERIC-PCR • RAPD-PCR • Other PCR Techniques • DNA Microarray Technology

Chapter 11: Clinical Picture • Clinical Observations in Domestic Mammals • Latent Chlamydiosis • Chlamydial Abortions, Premature Births, Stillbirths and Non-viable Offspring • Chlamydial Respiratory Diseases • Chlamydial Conjunctivitis and Keratoconjunctivitis in Sheep • Chlamydial Polyarthritis in Sheep • Chlamydial Arthritis in Goats • Chlamydial Polyarthritis in Cattle • Chlamydial Encephalomyelitis in Cattle and Buffaloes • Chlamydial Mastitis in Cattle • Intestinal Chlamydial Infections in Ruminants • Chlamydial Pericarditis in Pigs • Chlamydial Abortions, Stillbirths, and Deliveries of Unviable Offspring in Pigs • Chlamydial Vaginitis in Pigs • Chlamydial Polyarthritis in Pigs • Reproductive Disorders in Sows • Chlamydial Conjunctivitis in Pigs • Chlamydial Pneumonia in Pigs • Chlamydiosis in Boars • Intestinal Chlamydial Infections in Pigs • Latent Chlamydiosis • Prevention, Treatment and Control of Chlamydioses in Pigs • Clinical Observations in Horses • Clinical Observations in Dogs • Treatment of Dogs • Clinical Observations in Cats • Treatment of Cats • Clinical Observations in Birds • Chlamydiosis in Waterfowl • Chlamydiosis in Hens • Chlamydiosis in Turkeys • Chlamydiosis in Decorative Birds • Chlamydiosis in Pigeons • Clinical Observations in Guinea Pigs • Clinical Observations in Humans • Human Infections Caused by Chlamydia Psittaci with Avian Origin • Clinical Data for Chlamydiosis Epidemics in Humans Associated with Outbreaks of Avian Chlamydiosis in Waterfowl • Sporadic Morbidity from Ornithosis in Humans • Chlamydiae of Mammalian Origin and their Importance for Human Health • Infections Caused by Chlamydia Trachomatis • Chlamydial Urethritis (Non-gonococcal Urethritis — NGU) in Men • Post-Gonococcal Chlamydial Urethritis (PGU) • Chlamydial Prostatitis • Chlamydial Vesiculitis • Chlamydial Epididymitis, Orchitis, and Orchiepididymitis • Paraurethrits • Chlamydial Infections in Women • Chlamydial Cervicitis • Chlamydial Vaginitis • Chlamydial Urethritis, Urethral Syndrome, and Paraurethritis in Women • Chlamydial Bartholinitis • Chlamydial Endometritis • Chlamydial Salpingitis • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Fitz-Hugh-Curtis Syndrome (FHCS) • Chlamydia Trachomatis Placental Inflammation • Reiter’s Syndrome and Reactive Arthritis • Infection with C. trachomatis in Newborn Children • Use of Immuno-stimulator Urostim in Chronic Recurrent Andrologic Infections with Chlamydial Etiology • Infections Caused by Chlamydia Pneumoniae • Atypical Pneumonia • Chlamydia Pneumoniae and Asthma • Clinical Manifestations of Chlamydial Infections in Other Animal Species

Chapter 12: Pathology • Macroscopic Observations • Domestic Ruminants • Chlamydial abortion in goats • Chlamydial abortion in cows • Stillborn lambs, kids, and calves • Premature births in sheep, goats and cows • Chlamydial polyarthritis in sheep • Chlamydial polyarthritis in cattle • Chlamydial conjunctivitis in sheep • Chlamydial pneumonia in sheep • Chlamydial respiratory diseases in goats and kids • Swine • Chlamydial pericarditis • Chlamydial vaginitis • Chlamydial epizootic abortion • Chlamydial pneumonia in pigs • Birds • Chlamydiosis (omithosis) in ducks • Chlamydiosis (ornithosis) in hens • Chlamydiosis (omithosis) in pigeons • Psittacosis in psittacine birds • Guinea Pigs • Guinea-Pig Inclusion Conjunctivitis (GPIC) • Microscopic Findings • Chlamydial Abortion in Sheep • Placentas • Fetuses • Chlamydial Polyarthritis in Sheep • Chlamydial Polyarthritis in Calves • Chlamydial Encephalitis in Cattle and Buffalos • Chlamydial Pneumonia in Sheep and Cattle • Chlamydial Enteritis in Calves • Chlamydial Pericarditis in Pigs • Chlamydial Conjunctivitis and Keratoconjunctivitis in Pigs • Chlamydial Pneumonia in Pigs • Chlamydial Abortion in Pigs • Chlamydiosis in Ducks • Chlamydiosis in Hens

Chapter 13: Epidemiology • Sero-epizootiology and Nosogeography of Chlamydial Infections in Bulgaria • General Characteristics of Foci of Chlamydial Infections Among Domestic Ruminants • Epizootiology of Chlamydial Abortions and Related Conditions of Pathology of Pregnancy • Epizootiological Aspects of Chlamydial Respiratory Diseases • Epizootiological Aspects of Chlamydial Keratoconjunctivitis and Arthritis • Epizootiological Studies of Swine Chlamydiosis • Epizootiological studies of Swine Chlamydiosis • Epizootiological and Epidemiological Studies of Avian Chlamydiosis • Epizootics of Ornithosis in Ducks - Trustenik (PI), 1991 • Epizootics of Ornithosis in Ducks - Kostinbrod (SF), 1991 • Technological and sanitary analysis • Analysis of C. psittaci Infection and Mortality • Other Epizootics and Enzootics of Chlamydiosis in Waterfowl • Epizootiological Analysis of the Diseases of Psittacosis-Ornithosis in Humans

Chapter 14: Vaccines for Chlamydia-induced Diseases • Introduction • Avian Chlamydiosis • Chlamydial Abortion in Sheep • Method for the Preparation of PM-3 Vaccine Against Chlamydial Miscarriage in Sheep • Chlamydial strains • Preparation of suspensions • Electron microscopic examination of suspensions • Bacteriological control of suspensions • Centrifuging the suspension at 1500 g for 40 min • EM-control of the aggregate sediment and the pooled supernatant after centrifugation at 1500 g • Inactivation of the chlamydiae • Determination of the antigenic content in the aggregate sediment and the pooled supernatant after centrifugation at 1500 g • Determination of antigenic content in inactivated chlamydial suspensions • Treatment of the suspensions by ultrasound • Infectivity control • Determination of antigenic content in the ultrasound treated suspension • Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting • Deposition with aluminum hydroxide • Sterility controls • Innocuousness control • Challenge inoculation • Other clinical observations • Storage of the vaccine • Vaccines for Cattle • Vaccines Against Chlamydial Infections in Cats • Attempts to Develop Vaccines Against C. trachomatis-induced Diseases in Humans



About the Author


About the Author:

Svetoslav P. Martinov, National Diagnostic and Research Veterinary Medical Institute – Sofia, Bulgaria.

Target Audience:

This book is useful for students and academicians of Biotechnology and Medicine.

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