Title Advanced Concepts for Renewable Energy Supply of Data Centres
Subtitle (River Publishers Series in Renewable Energy)
Author Jaume Salom, Thorsten Urbaneck, Eduard Oró
ISBN 9788793519428
List price USD 80.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 238
Book size 152 X 235 mm
Publishing year 2017
Original publisher River Publishers (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Description:

The rapid increase of cloud computing, high performance computing (HPC) and the vast growth in Internet and Social Media use have aroused the interest in energy consumption and the carbon footprint of Data Centres. Data Centres primarily contain electronic equipment used for data processing (servers), data storage (storage equipment), and communications (network equipment). Collectively, this equipment processes, stores, and transmits digital information and is known as information technology (IT) equipment.

Advanced Concepts for Renewable Energy Supply of Data Centres introduces a number of technical solutions for the supply of power and cooling energy into Data Centres with enhanced utilisation of renewable energy sources in order to achieve low energy Data Centres. Because of the high energy density nature of these unique infrastructures, it is essential to implement energy efficiency measures and reduce consumption before introducing any renewable energy source. A holistic approach is used with the objective of integrating many technical solutions such as management of the IT (Information Technology) load, efficient electrical supply to the IT systems, Low-Ex air-conditioning systems, interaction with district heating and cooling networks, re-use of heat, free cooling (air, seawater, groundwater), optimal use of heat and cold storage, electrical storage and integration in smart grids.

This book is therefore a catalogue of advanced technical concepts that could be integrated into Data Centres portfolio in order to increase the overall efficiency and the share of renewable energies in power and cooling supply. Based on dynamic energy models implemented in TRNSYS some concepts are deeply evaluated through yearly simulations. The results of the simulation are illustrated with Sankey charts, where the energy flows per year within the subsystems of each concept for a selected scenario are shown, and graphs showing the results of parametric analysis. A set of environmental metrics (as the non-renewable primary energy) and financial metrics (CAPEX and OPEX) as well of energy efficiency metrics like the well-known PUE, are described and used to evaluate the different technical concepts.


Contents:

Preface

Acknowledgments

List of Contributors

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Symbols and Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Data Centre Overview (Eduard Oró and Jaume Salom) • Data Centre Infrastructure • Introduction • Main Subsystems • IT Equipment • Power System • Cooling System • Data Centre Archetypes • Function or Objective of the Data Centre • Size • Location and Surroundings • Archetypes Definition • Workload Typology • Web Workloads • HPC Workloads • Data Workloads • Consumption versus Workload Typology • Redundancy Level • Basic Definitions • Tier Levels • Future Trends • References.

Chapter 2: Operational Requirement (Eduard Oró, Victor Depoorter and Jaume Salom) • Working Temperature Limit • Impact of Server Inlet Temperature • Permitted Temperatures of Individual Components • CPU Power Management and Throttling • Environmental Conditions • Temperature and Humidity Requirements • Quality of the Room Air • Power Quality • Input Voltage within Acceptable Limits • Input Frequency within Allowable Ranges • Sufficient Input Power to Compensate for Power Factor • Transfer to Backup Power Faster than PSU “Hold-up” Time • Protection from Damaging Power Conditions • References

Chapter 3: Environmental and Economic Metrics for Data Centres (Jaume Salom and Albert Garcia) • About Metrics in Data Centres • Data Centre Boundaries for Metrics Calculation • Definition of Boundaries • Energy Flows • Metrics for Cost-Environmental Analysis • Environmental Impact Metrics • Data Centre primary energy • Data Centre CO2 emissions • Data Centre water consumption • Financial Metrics • Methodological reference framework • Global cost • CAPEX: capital expenditure • OPEX: operating expenditure • Cost-Efficiency Analysis • Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Metrics • Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) • Renewable Energy Ratio • Renewable Energy Factor • Capacity Metrics • Introduction • Capacity Metrics • Examples • Example 1. PV System and Ice Storage • Example 2. District Cooling and Heat Reuse • References

Chapter 4: Advanced Technical Concepts for Efficient Electrical Distribution and IT Management (Eduard Oró, Mauro Canuto and Albert Garcia) • Advanced Technical Concepts for Efficient IT Management • Advanced Technical Concepts for Efficient • Electric Power Distribution • Introduction • Modular UPS • Bypassed UPS • Enhanced UPS for Electrical Energy Storage • References

Chapter 5: Advanced Technical Concepts for Low-Exergy Climate and Cooling Distribution (Nirendra Lal Shrestha, Thomas Oppelt, Verena Rudolf and Thorsten Urbaneck)Introduction • Free Cooling • Free Cooling with Direct Ambient Air • Free Cooling with Indirect Ambient Air • Seawater Air Conditioning System • Free Cooling with Groundwater • Increasing Allowable IT Temperatures • Increased White Space Temperature with Airside Cooling • Increased White Space Temperature with Chilled Water Cooling • Increasing the Delta T Through the IT Equipment • Hot or Cold Aisle Containment • Variable Airflow • Strategy A: Pressure Difference • Strategy B: Actual IT load • Strategy C: Return Air Temperature • Partial Load – Redundant or Oversized Components • Redundant Components and Oversizing Components • Partial Load with Chillers • Variable Flow with Fans and Pumps • Oversizing Dry Coolers and Cooling Towers • Energy Savings and Payback Periods • High Energy Efficiency Components • Fans and Pumps • Air-Cooled Chillers • Water-Cooled Chillers • Conclusions • References.

Chapter 6: Advanced Technical Concepts for Power and Cooling Supply with Renewables (Verena Rudolf, Nirendra Lal Shrestha, Noah Pflugradt, Eduard Oró, Thorsten Urbaneck and Jaume Salom) • Introduction • Concepts Overview • Sankey charts analysis • Description of the Proposed Advanced Technical Concepts • Photovoltaic System and Wind Turbines with Vapour-Compression Chiller and Lead-Acid Batteries • District Cooling and Heat Reuse • Grid-Fed Wet Cooling Tower Without Chiller • Grid-Fed Vapour-Compression Chiller with Electrical Energy and Chilled Water Storages • Biogas Fuel Cell with Absorption Chiller • Reciprocating Engine CHP with Absorption Chiller • References

Chapter 7: Applying Advanced Technical Concepts to Selected Scenarios (Verena Rudolf, Nirendra Lal Shrestha, Eduard Oró, Thorsten Urbaneck and Jaume Salom) • Overview of Concept Performance • Concept Comparison for Selected Scenarios • Description of Scenarios Analysed • Detailed Analysis by Advanced Technical Concept • Introduction • Concept 1. Photovoltaic System and Wind Turbines with Vapour-Compression Chiller • Influence of energy efficiency measures • Influence of size • On-Site renewable energy systems implementation • Concept 2. District Cooling and Heat Reuse • Influence of energy efficiency measures • Influence of size • Influence of the liquid cooling solution and the potential heat reuse • Concept 3. Grid-FedWet Cooling Tower without Chiller • Influence of energy efficiency measures • Influence of EE measures • Influence of size • On-site PV systems implementation • Concept 4. Grid-Fed Vapour-Compression Chiller with Electrical Energy and ChilledWater Storages • Influence of EE measures • Influence of size • Influence of the size of TES • Concept 5. Biogas Fuel Cell with Absorption Chiller • Influence of EE measures • Influence of size • Influence of absorption chiller sizes and potential heat reuse • Concept 6. Reciprocating Engine CHP with Absorption Chiller • Influence of EE measures • Influence of size • Influence of absorption chiller sizes and potential heat reuse • Other Aspects Influencing Data Centre Energy Consumption • Influence of the IT Load Profile • Influence of the rack density, occupancy, and oversizing factors • The RenewIT Tool • Conclusion • References

Annexes

Index

About the Editors


About the Editors:

Dr. Jaume Salom is the head of the Thermal Energy and Building Performance research group at IREC (Catalonia Institute for Energy Research). Previously to joining IREC in 2010, he co-founded and led the cooperative firm AIGUASOL, which has become an international reference in the field of thermal energy efficiency, renewable energies, building physics and software development. He holds a doctorate degree in Thermal Engineering  from the Polytechnical University of Catalonia (Spain) and he has research and professional experience in the fields of heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, building energy efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic simulation. In his current position in the division of Energy efficiency in Systems, Buildings and Communities he leads IREC participation in several national, international and industrial research projects directed towards improving energy performance in buildings and energy systems. Dr. Jaume Salom research interest in the last years has been focused on Net Zero Energy Buildings and Communities, as well of studying energy efficiency and integration of renewable energy sources in Data Centre infrastructures. Dr. Jaume Salom is the Spanish secretary in the TC ISO/IEC JTC1 SC39 Sustainability for and by information technology.

Scientific vita of Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Thorsten Urbaneck: 1990 to 1996 studies of mechanical engineering, thermal engineering and environmental technology in Chemnitz (Dipl.-Ing.); since 1996 scientific staff at Chemnitz University of Technology, Chair for Technical Thermodynamics; 2004 Doctorate (Promotion, Dr.-Ing.), since 2006 head of the division Thermal Energy Storage, 2011 Postdoctoral qualification (Habilitation, Dr.-Ing. habil.; venia legendi in the field Thermal Energy Systems), 2013 Privatdozent (private lecturer), 2017 supernumerary professor. His main research topics are: Thermal energy storages and systems engineering; solar thermal systems, district heating and cooling, combined heat and power; numerical simulation and optimization of system for heating and cooling; evaluation and validation of models in the field of heat and mass transfer; monitoring of supply systems and experiments in laboratory. Thorsten Urbaneck has been publishing more than 190 papers, holding over 170 oral presentations and is the single author of 2 books and co-author of another 2 books. He holds 4 patents and has filed 3 further applications.

Dr. Eduard Oró joined the Catalonia Institute for Energy Research in October 2013, where he currently investigates into the Thermal Energy and Building Performance group. He holds a doctorate degree in Thermal Engineering from the University of Lleida and he has research and professional experience in the fields of heat and mass transfer, fluid mechanics, numerical and dynamic simulation, thermal energy storage systems, transportation and storage of temperature sensitive products. During his stay at the University of Lleida was in charge of the thermal energy storage area at high temperature (>120ºC) for solar cooling and concentrated power plants and at the same time at low temperature (<20ºC) applications such as transportation of temperature sensitive products such as frozen food, blood, etc. Currently he is coordinating the Green IT area where the implementation of advanced energy concepts and the integration of energy efficiency strategies and renewable energy into data centres are under consideration. In this field, he has participated in some EU funded projects (i.e. RenewIT and Coolemall) supporting the scientific coordination. Dr. Eduard Oró research interest in the last years has been focused on heat reuse potential from data centres as well as studying best integration of these unique facilities in smart cities through smart grids (both electrical and thermal networks).


Target Audience:

People interested in Information technology, data centres, IT management, energy efficiency, power supply, cooling supply, renewable energy, environmental impact and financial metrics.

 

 
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