Title Datacenter Connectivity Technologies
Subtitle Principles and Practice (River Publishers Series in Optics and Photonics)
Author Frank Chang
ISBN 9788793609228
List price USD 100.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 250
Book size 152 X 235 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher River Publishers (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Description:

In recent years, investments by cloud companies in mega data centers and associated network infrastructure has created a very active and dynamic segment in the optical components and modules market. Optical interconnect technologies at high speed play a critical role for the growth of mega data centers, which flood the networks with unprecedented amount of data traffic.

Datacenter Connectivity Technologies: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive and in-depth look at the development of various optical connectivity technologies which are making an impact on the building of data centers. The technologies span from short range connectivity, as low as 100 meters with multi-mode fiber (MMF) links inside data centers, to long distances of hundreds of kilometers with single-mode fiber (SMF) links between data centers.

This book is the first of its kind to address various advanced technologies connecting data centers. It represents a collection of achievements and the latest developments from well-known industry experts and academic researchers active in this field.

Technical topics covered in this book include:

  • Mega data center requirements
  • High volume VCSELs
  • Directly modulated lasers
  • Electro-absorption modulated lasers
  • Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM)
  • Discrete Multi-Tone modulation (DMT)
  • Optical Duobinary Transmission
  • Optical fibers and connectors
  • Mach-zenhder modulators
  • Silicon photonics
  • Optical waveguide devices and packaging
  • Testing and measurements
  • Advanced modulation formats
  • Optical coherent networks
  • High-speed IC design & packaging

Contents:

Preface

Acknowledgements

List of Contributors

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1: Optical Interconnect Technologies for Datacenter Networks (Chongjin Xie) • Introduction • Intra-datacenter Interconnects • 40G Optical Interconnect Technologies • 100G Optical Interconnect Technologies • 400G and Beyond Optical Interconnect Technologies • Inter-datacenter Interconnects • Inter-datacenter Interconnects in Metro Networks • Inter-datacenter Interconnects in WANs • Summary  • References

Chapter 2: Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers (Wenbin Jiang) • Introduction • Technology Fundamentals • VCSEL Device Structure • VCSEL Material Growth • VCSEL Fabrication Process • Conclusion • References

Chapter 3: Direct Modulation Laser Technology: Past, Present, and Future (Yasuhiro Matsui) • Introduction • Intuitive Picture of the Dynamics of Directly Modulated Lasers • Progress of High-Speed FP and DFB Lasers • 1.55 µm DML • 1.3 µm DML • Short-Wavelength DML • Reach Extension of DML for PON and Metro Applications • Principle of Reach Extension of DML by Tailoring Chirp • 10 Git/s Transmission Performance of Adiabatic- and Transient-Chirp Dominant DMLs • Gain Compression Phenomena • Experimental S21 Response and Transmission Performance of a Highly-Damped DBR Laser • Thermal Wavelength Drift Stabilization for the Burst-Mode NGPON2 Application • Chirp Managed Laser (CML) • Principles of CML • Experimental Demonstrations of CML • New Era of High-Speed DML Toward 100-GHz Bandwidth • Detuned-Loading Effect • S21 High-Pass Filter Effect Due to In-Cavity FM-AM Conversion by the DBR Mirror • Photon-Photon Resonance Effect • Co-Existence of Photon-Photon Resonance and Detuned-Loading Effects • 55-GHz Bandwidth Short-Cavity DR Laser and 56 Gbaud PAM4 Generation • Conclusions • References

Chapter 4: PAM4 Modulation Using Electro-absorption Modulated Lasers (Trevor Chan and Winston Way) • Introduction • General PAM4 Optical Transceiver and Link Considerations • PAM4 Signal and Optical Link Characteristics • EML Biasing and Nonlinear Equalization • Forward Error Correction (FEC) and Data Rates for PAM4 Links • Sampling Rate and Analog Bandwidth • FFE and DFE Equalization • 28 Gbaud PAM4 Transmission • 56 Gbaud PAM4 Transmission over 2 km Experiment • 40 km PAM4 Transmission • Avalanche Photodiode (APD) • Gain Clamped Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (GC-SOA) • 100 km PAM4 Transmission • Experimental Setup • Single Channel Characteristics • Effect of Fiber Nonlinearities • Multipath Interference • Experimental Demonstration of the Upper Bound MPI Scenario • Time-Domain Mixing Monte Carlo Simulation • MPI Experiment with Multiple Connectors • Summary • References

Chapter 5: Optical Fiber for Datacenter Connectivity (Yi Sun and John Kamino) • Introduction • Fiber Type for Datacenters • Multimode Fiber Types for Datacenters • Single-mode Fiber Types for Datacenters • Optical Cabling for Datacenters • Multicore (MCF) and Few-Mode Fiber (FMF) for SDM • Waveguide Design, Modal Structure, and Time Response of SMF and MMF for Datacenters • Fundamentals of Waveguide Design and Mode Structures of SMF and MMF • Fundamentals of the Time Response of Optical Fiber • Multimode Optical Fiber for High-Speed Short-Reach Interconnect • Laser-optimized MMF (OM3 and OM4) • What is Laser-optimized MMF? • Differential Modal Delay (DMD) • Bandwidth of MMF Links • Bend-optimized OM3/OM4 and Overfilled Effective Modal Bandwidth • Wideband MMF (OM5) • High-Speed VCSEL-MMF Short-Reach Optical Interconnect System • System Evaluation Methodology • High-Speed VCSEL-MMF System Transmission Validation • 10GBASE-SR transmission over OM3 and OM4 MMF • 40GBASE-eSR4 and 100G eSR4 extended reach demonstration over OM4 MMF • 40/100 Gbps SWDM over OM5 MMF • High-Speed PAM4 SWDM transmission over OM5 MMF • Datacom Transmission over Single-Mode Optical Fiber • Conclusions • References

Chapter 6: PAM4 Signaling and its Applications (Frank Chang) • Introduction • A Brief History • PAM4 IC Implementation Challenges • PAM4 Transmit Architectures • PAM4 Receive Architectures • PAM4 SMF Performance • Experimental Setups • 1? 40G 10 km Transmission • 2? 100G 10 km and 40 km Transmissions • Technical Options for 200/400G Over SMF • PAM4 MMF Performance • Experimental Setups • 1? 40G Transmission Over 550m OM4 • 2? 100/200 Gbps 300 m Transmission • Technical Options for 200/400G Over VCSEL/MMF • PAM4 for OSNR-limited Systems at 1550 nm • Experimental Setups • OSNR and Dispersion Performance • PAM4 Compliance Tests • Transmitter Dispersion Eye Closure for PAM4 (TDECQ) • Optical Stressed Receiver Sensitivity • Single Lambda PAM4 • Summary and Outlook • References

Chapter 7: Discrete Multitone for Metro Datacenter Interconnect (Gordon Ning Liu, Tianjian Zuo and Liang Zhang) • Introduction • A Brief History of DMT • How DMT Works • FFT/IFFT • Cyclic Prefix • Loading Algorithm • PAPR Suppression • Synchronization • Channel Equalization • Advanced DMT Techniques for Metro DCI • The Principle of CD-induced Power Fading • Generations of SSB-DMT • Optical filter-based SSB-DMT • E/O modulator-based SSB-DMT • Generation of EDC-DSB-DMT • Generation of Twin-SSB-DMT • Generation of SSBI-free Twin-SSB-DMT • Summary • References

Chapter 8: A Duobinary Approach Toward High-speed Short-reach Optical Interconnects (Xin (Scott) Yin, Guy Torfs and Johan Bauwelinck) • Introduction • Three-Level Electrical Duobinary Modulation • Nyquist Frequency • Power Spectral Density • Vertical and Horizontal Eye Openings • 100-Gbps EDB/NRZ Transmitter and Receiver Chipset • EDB/NRZ Transmission with DFB-TWEAM • NRZ-OOK Transmission with GeSi EAM • SM LW-VCSEL EDB Links • Conclusion • References

Chapter 9: LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder Modulator (Hirochika Nakajima and Yuya Yamaguchi) • Introduction • Physical Properties of LN (LiNbO3) Crystal • Low-loss Ti-diffused Waveguides on LN Since 1974 • Mach–Zehnder (MZ) Guided-wave Circuit with Y-branches on LN • Velocity Matching Between Lightwave and Electric Signal • Stabilization of LN-MZM Operation • External Modulation by LN-MZM Accompanied with EDFA Repeating • Vector Modulation with LN-MZM for Digital Coherent Optical Communications • Current Status of LN-MZM and Future Potential • Summary • References

Chapter 10: Silicon Photonics Based PAM4, DWDM Datacenter Interconnects (Radhakrishnan Nagarajan and Mark Filer) • Introduction • Datacenter Interconnect–Edge • Switch Pluggable 100Gbit/s DWDM Module • PAM4 DSP ASIC • Silicon Photonics • Module and Transmission Performance • Live Datacenter Deployments • Evolution to Switch Pluggable 400-Gbit/s DWDM Module • Conclusion • References

Chapter 11: Low-Loss Photonic Integration: Applications in Datacenters (Demis D. John, Grant Brodnik, Sarat Gundavarapu, Renan L. Moreira, Michael Belt, Taran Huffman and Daniel J. Blumenthal) • Datacenters and Photonic Integrated Circuits • InP, Si, and Si3N4 Waveguide Platforms • The Ultra-Low Loss Si3N4/SiO2 Platform • Integration Building Blocks on the ULL Silicon Nitride Platform • Available PIC Platforms • Ultra-Low Loss PIC Components for Datacom • Low-Loss PICs and Optical Delays • Integrated Dispersion Compensation • Design of an Integrated Dispersion Compensator • Demonstration of 40 Gbps NRZ-OOK Dispersion Compensation • Demonstration of 40 Gbps PAM-4 Dispersion Compensation • Grating Filters • Ring Resonator Filters • High-Extinction Filters • C-band Lasers on the Si3N4 Platform • Silicon-Nitride Waveguide Design • Summary • References

Chapter 12: Advanced Optical Measurements for Data Centers (Steve Yao, Wajih Daab, Gang He and Daniel Gariépy) • Introduction • Polarization Related Tests • Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) Measurement • Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) Measurement • PDR Measurement of Receivers • PDL Measurement of Fiber Optic Link • Measuring In-band OSNR by DOP Measurement • Polarization Emulation for Non-coherent and Coherent Systems • Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio Measurement • Measuring OSNR with an OSA • Characterization of Optical Vector-Modulated Signals • Constellation and IQ Diagrams for Vector-Modulated Signal • Definitions of EVM, RMS-EVM and TR-EVM • Relationships between EVMRMS, Q-Factor, OSNR and BER • Characterization of Transmitter Impairments • Conclusion • References

Chapter 13: Digital Signal Processing for Short-reach Optical Communications (Kangping Zhong, Xian Zhou, Jiahao Huo, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Chao Lu and Li Zeng) • Introduction • Challenges for Short-reach Optical Systems • Cost • Form factor • Latency • Different Types of Short-reach Systems • Server-to-server or Intra-data-center links • Inter data-center links • Extended Reach Inter-data-center, Access, and Metro Links • Modulation Formats for Short-reach Systems • Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) • Carry-less Amplitude and Phase (CAP) Modulation • Discrete Multi-tone (DMT) Modulation • Performance Comparison of Modulation Formats • Complexity Comparison of Modulation Formats • Recent Experiment on High-Speed Short-reach Transmission Systems • Digital Signal Processing for Short-reach Systems • Feed-forward Equalizer (FFE) • Decision Feedback Equalizer (DFE) • Direct Detection Faster-than Nyquist (DD-FTN) • Volterra-series Based Nonlinear Equalizer (VNLE) • Polarization Division Multiplexed Transmission for Short-reach Systems • Stokes-vector Direct Detection (SV-DD) Receiver • 2-Dimensional (2D) PDM-DD System Based on SV-DD Receiver • 3-Dimensional (3D) PDM-DD System Based on SV-DD Receiver • Conclusion • References

Chapter 14: Multi-dimensional Polarization Modulation (Di Che, An Li, Xi Chen, Qian Hu and William Shieh) • Optical Detection with Polarization Diversity • The Need of Polarization-Diversity Detection • Automatic Polarization Control • Polarization-Diversity Detection in Jones Space • The Barrier of Self-Polarization Diversity • Polarization-Diversity Detection in Stokes Space • Direct Modulation with Coherent Receiver • The Intensity-only POL-MUX-DM Coherent System • Complex DM Model • 100-Gb/s CDM Transmission Over 1600-km SMF • Polarization Modulation in Stokes Space • Stokes-space Modulation • Universal MIMO Equalization in Stokes Space • Self-coherent SSM • Multi-Dimensional IM in Stokes Space • Noncoherent Polarization Multiplexing • Degree of Coherence in POL-MUX Transmitter • Noncoherent POL-MUX Schemes • Summary • References

Chapter 15: High-speed Flexible Coherent Optical Transport Network (Tiejun J. Xia and Glenn A. Wellbrock) • Introduction • Why Optical Coherent Transmission? • Optical Transport Network with Coherent Transmission • What’s Next for Optical Transport Network? • Coherent Transport Technology Development by Network Operators • Datacenter Connections and Coherent Transport Networks • Conclusions • References

Chapter 16: Ultra-low-power SiGe Driver-IC for High-speed Electro-absorption Modulated DFB Lasers (Jung Han Choi) • Introduction • IC Design for Low Power Consumption • Design Requirements • IC Architectures for Low Power Consumption • Driver-IC Design • Unit-cell design • Circuit Simulations • Co-design and Electro-optical Simulation • Low-power CoC Design • Co-simulation of Driver-IC with EML • Electrical Time-domain Simulations • Electro-optical Time-domain Simulations • Measurements • EO Measurements • Transmission Experiments • Conclusion and Perspective • References

Index

About the Editor

About the Editor:

Frank Chang, Inphi Corp, California, USA.

Target Audience:

People interested in Data center networks, optical interconnect, transceiver modules, optoelectronics, integrated circuits.

 
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