Title Reforming Non-Tariff Measures
Subtitle From Evidence to Policy Advice (Directions in Development - Trade)
Author Olivier Cadot, Michael J. Ferrantino, Julien Gourdon, José-Daniel Reyes
ISBN 9781464811388
List price USD 35.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 118
Book size 178 x 254 mm
Publishing year 2018
Original publisher The World Bank
Published in India by The World Bank
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Trade liberalization can be a significant engine of growth. Despite substantial progress in tariff reduction, trade facilitation, and logistics, high levels of trade costs persist in the world trading system. These costs impede the further growth of trade and the gains that can be derived from it.

Some of these costs can be attributed to non-tariff measures (NTMs),  policies imposed by governments in addition to ordinary customs duties. NTMs have an impact on the price at which exports and imports are traded, the quantities traded, or both. Such costs are particularly worrisome if they have a discriminatory or protectionist effect or violate countries’  international commitments. Even NTMs designed to carry out domestic regulatory objectives—for example, protection of human, animal, or plant health; consumer or workplace safety; or the environment—can have substantial effects on international trade. These effects need to be considered as such policies are developed.

Reforming Non-Tariff Measures: From Evidence to Policy Advice discusses some of the analytical methods that can be used to accompany the process of policy development for NTMs through the following:

  • Provides the broad economic rationale for improving the design of NTMs
  • Illustrates the main forms of quantification of NTMs and their effects, including inventory approaches, price-based approaches, and quantity-based approaches
  • Proposes a new analytical and measurable concept of regulatory distance to help guide deep integration efforts at the regional level
  • Discusses the effects of NTMs on household expenditures, poverty, and firm competitiveness
  • Shows how empirical analysis of NTMs can be used to inform policy advice.

Reforming Non-Tariff Measures: From Evidence to Policy Advice will be a valuable addition to the arsenal of tools available for applied analysis of international trade policy



About the Authors



Chapter 1: Introduction • Note • References

Chapter 2: The Policy Case for Tackling Non-Tariff Measures • Trade as an Engine of Growth • High Trade Costs in Spite of Liberalization • Streamline, Not Eliminate: The Basic Welfare Economics of NTMs • Regional Efforts at Tackling NTMs • Making NTM Streamlining Part of Country-Level Competitiveness Agendas • Notes • References

Chapter 3: The Big Numbers: Do NTMs Matter? • How Prevalent Are NTMs? The Inventory Approach • How Stringent Are NTMs? Price-Based and Quantity-Based Methods for Calculating the Ad Valorem Equivalent of NTMs • How Do NTMs Differ? A Regulatory Distance Approach • Notes • References

Chapter 4: Which NTMs Matter for Household Expenditures, Poverty, and Firms’ Competitiveness? • Non-Tariff Measures and Poverty • Firms’ Access to Imported Inputs • Notes • References

Chapter 5: Getting to Policy Advice • Identifying and Flagging Problem Cases • Registration Requirements Hampering Entry and Competition in the Steel Sector in Indonesia • Export Registration Requirements and Mandatory Certificates of Origin Increase the Cost of Exports in Cambodia • Notes • References

Chapter 6: Conclusions

Appendix A: Sources for Policy Data on NTMs • Notes • References

Appendix B: Some Methods for Handicraft and Mass-Produced Handicraft Estimates of Tariff Equivalents • Notes • References

Appendix C: Model to Estimate Trade Costs to Export • Notes

Appendix D: Price Index of Products with and without Import Bans in Nigeria




About the Authors:

Olivier Cadot holds a PhD in economics from Princeton University and an MA in economic history from McGill University. He is professor of international economics and director of the Institute of Applied Economics at the University of Lausanne. Formerly, he was associate professor of economics at INSEAD. He has held visiting appointments at the University of California at Los Angeles, McGill University, New York University, Université d’Auvergne, Koç University, and the Institut d’Etudes Politiques de Paris. He has been mission chief and consultant on World Bank missions to emerging countries and has advised the French government, the Swiss federal government, and the European Commission on trade policy matters. He also has worked for the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Monetary Fund. He was elected best teacher of the year at the Faculty of Business and Economics at the University of Lausanne and was nominated three times for the Outstanding Teacher Award at INSEAD. He has contributed regularly to international executive programs.

Michael J. Ferrantino is lead economist and global product specialist for trade policy and integration at the World Bank. Prior to joining the World Bank, he served as lead international economist at the U.S. International Trade Commission from 1994 to 2013. His published research spans a wide array of topics relating to international trade, including non-tariff measures and trade facilitation; global value chains; relationship of trade to the environment, innovation, and productivity; and U.S.-China trade. He has taught at Southern Methodist, Youngstown State, Georgetown, American, and George Washington universities, and he has partnered on research projects with Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, OECD, the World Trade Organization, and the World Economic Forum. He holds a PhD in economics from Yale University.

Julien Gourdon has been an economist with the OECD since 2014. He specializes in international trade and development economics. His main topics of interest are trade policies, export competitiveness, trade and income inequality, and the impact evaluation of trade assistance projects. Formerly, he was an economist at the CEPII from 2011 to 2014 and at the World Bank from 2006 to 2011. He holds a PhD in economics from the University of Clermont Auvergne (CERDI).
José-Daniel Reyes is a senior economist in the Macroeconomics, Trade, and Investment Global Practice of the World Bank. He has more than 10 years of research and policy experience, working on issues of international trade, foreign direct investment, and globalization. Prior to joining the World Bank, he worked for the Inter-American Development Bank and for the Colombian government monitoring country performance in the Latin American region. He holds a PhD in economics from Georgetown University.

Target Audience:

This book will be a valuable addition to the arsenal of tools available for applied analysis of international trade policy.



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