Title Valuing Forest Ecosystem Services
Subtitle A Training Manual for Planners and Project Developers
Author Mauro Masiero, Davide Pettenella, Marco Boscolo, Sepul kanti Barua, Illias Animon, Rao Matta
ISBN 9789251312155
List price USD 100.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 216
Book size 159 x 235 mm
Publishing year 2019
Original publisher Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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The degradation of ecosystems, including forests, and the associated loss of biodiversity, particularly due to human-induced threats and climate change, has gained increased attention from scientists and policymakers. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment presented a new conceptual framework that puts ecosystem services at the centre and links human well-being to the impacts on ecosystems of changes in natural resources.

The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity initiative drew further attention to the economic benefits of conserving ecosystems and biodiversity, supporting the idea that economic instruments – if appropriately applied, developed and interpreted – can inform policy- and decision-making processes. Only a few ecosystem services, however, have explicit market value and are traded in open markets: many – especially those categorized as having “passive-use” value – remain invisible and are rarely accounted for in traditional economic systems.

The failure to appropriately consider the full economic value of ecosystem services in decision making enables the continued degradation and loss of ecosystems and biodiversity. Most ecosystem services are considered public goods and tend to be overexploited by society. Many methods have been applied to the economic valuation of ecosystem services. The use of these methods, as well as the interpretation of their results, requires familiarity with the ecological, political, normative and socio-economic context and the science of economics. Recognizing, demonstrating and capturing the value of ecosystem services can play an important role in setting policy directions for ecosystem management and conservation and thus in increasing the provision of ecosystem services and their contributions to human well-being.

The aim of this manual is to enhance understanding of ecosystem services and their valuation. The specific target group comprises governmental officers in planning units and field-level officers and practitioners in key government departments in Bangladesh responsible for project development, including the Ministry of Environment and Forests and its agencies. Most of the examples and case studies presented herein, therefore, are tailored to the Bangladesh context, but the general concepts, approaches and methods can be applied to a broad spectrum of situations. This manual focuses on valuing forest-related ecosystem services, including those provided by trees outside forests. It is expected to improve valuation efforts and help ensure the better use of such values in policymaking and decision making.

Among other things, the manual explores the basics of financial mathematics (e.g. the time value of money; discounting; cost–benefit analysis; and profitability and risk indicators); the main methods of economic valuation; examples of the valuation of selected ecosystem services; and inputs for considering values in decision making.




Abbreviations and acronyms

Executive summary

Module 1. Introduction • The training manual: an overview • Challenges and rationale for this module • Aims and focus of the manual • Intended audience and users • Outline and structure of the manual • Limitations • Framing the valuation of ecosystem services and decision making: hypothetical examples in Bangladesh • Scenario 1: cost–benefit analysis of a large coastal afforestation programme • Scenario 2: national incentive scheme for tree planting • Scenario 3: setting the entrance fee for a park • Scenario 4: assessing trade-offs between urban development and green-area conservation • Scenario 5: analysing the environmental externalities of a power plant and their costs

Module 2. Ecosystem Services: Concepts and Frameworks • Defining ecosystem services • How ecosystem services are classified • Conceptual foundation for the economic valuation of ecosystem services • Types of value • Valuation • Total economic value • Forest resources and forest-based ecosystem services in Bangladesh • Reflection points

Module 3. The Basics of Cost–Benefit Analysis • Time value of money • Compounding and discounting • Financial and economic analyses • Steps in cost–benefit analysis • Profitability indicators • Net present value • Internal rate of return • Benefit/cost ratio • Normalization • Choosing the discount rate • Sensitivity analysis: dealing with uncertainty • Assessing risk exposure: the payback period • Tools and resources for cost–benefit analysis • Reflection points

Module 4. Methods for Valuing Ecosystem Services • Market-value approaches • Methods using benefits as proxies • Methods adopting costs as a proxy • Demand-curve approaches • Direct methods • Indirect methods: using surveys to elicit information • Benefit transfer • Summary comparison of ES valuation methods • A word of caution • Reflection points

Module 5. Provisioning Services • Available methods • Examples • Woodfuel • Wild forest products: honey and wax • Estimating the opportunity cost of creating a forest plantation

Module 6. Regulating Services • Available methods • Market values • Costs as proxy • Contingent valuation, choice modelling and benefit transfer • Examples • Coastal protection against storms and tidal surges • Carbon sequestration

Module 7. Cultural Services • Available methods • Examples • Tourism and recreation • Symbolic and cultural value of species

Module 8. Using Valuation Results in Policymaking and Decision Making • Purposes of ecosystem service valuation • Including ES valuation in decision making: a step-wise approach • Recognizing ecosystem services • Demonstrating ecosystem services • Capturing the value of ecosystem services • Barriers to the use of economic valuation • Reflection points

Module 9. Final Remarks

Annex 1. Main ES Classification Systems: A Summary

Annex 2. Held and Assigned Values

Annex 3. Summary of Key Financial Formulas

Annex 4. An Example of Software for Cost–Benefit Analysis: A Practical Guide for Users

Annex 5. Selected Tools for Ecosystem Service Assessment


Target Audience:

This book is useful for those people who must consider the environmental costs and benefits of development projects but who don’t necessarily have a strong background in environmental economics. The specific target audience comprises governmental officers in planning units, field-level officers and practitioners in key government departments in Bangladesh responsible for project development, including the Ministry of Environment and Forests and its agencies.

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