Title Polymer Science
Subtitle A Textbook for Engineers and Technologists
Author Sebastião V. Canevarolo
ISBN 9781569907252
List price USD 101.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Hardbound
No of pages 370
Book size 171 x 241 mm
Publishing year 2020
Original publisher Hanser Publisher (Eurospan Group)
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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Description:

This is an introductory textbook on polymer science aimed at professors, undergraduate and graduate students of polymer science and technology courses as well as engineering (materials, chemical, civil, food), chemistry, and physics. It is also aimed at engineers and technologists.

 Each chapter starts with simple concepts and gets more complex toward its end to help the reader decide how deep to go into each topic. Each chapter also presents the solution of many proposed problems, guiding the reader to solve numerically the everyday problems polymer technologists face, by applying theoretical concepts. Additionally, at every chapter’s end there is a list of problems for the reader to check their understanding of the topics.

The book contains a list of more than 10 experiments to perform in the laboratory, linked to some of the concepts discussed in the book. It also serves as a long-term reference with many figures, diagrams, tables, chemical equations containing frequently needed information. It contains as well an appendix with a long list of chemical structures of the main commercially available polymers.


Contents:

Preface

About the Author

Foreword

Chapter 1. General Introduction • History • Polymer Concept • Reactive Double Bonds • Reactive Functional Groups • Terminology • Sources of Raw Materials • Natural Products • Mineral Coal • Petroleum • Problems

Chapter 2. Polymer Molecular Structure • Molecular Forces in Polymers • Primary or Intramolecular Bonds • Ionic or Electrovalent Bonds • Coordinate Bonds • Metallic Bonds • Covalent Bonds • Secondary or Intermolecular Bonds • Van der Waals Forces • Hydrogen Bonds • Summary • Monomer Functionality • Types of Chains • Linear Chain • Branched Chain • Random Chain Architecture • Star or Radial Chain Architecture • Comb Chain Architecture • Cross-linked Chain • Copolymer • Random Copolymer • Alternating Copolymer • Block Copolymer • Graft Copolymer • Classification of Polymers • Chemical Structure • Carbon Chain Polymers • Heterogeneous Chain Polymers • Method of Preparation • Addition Polymers • Condensation Polymers • Mechanical Behavior • Plastics • Elastomers • Fibers • Mechanical Performance • Commodity Thermoplastics • Special Thermoplastics • Engineering Thermoplastics • Special Engineering Thermoplastics • Configuration of Polymer Chains • Polymer Chaining • Head-to-Tail Chaining • Head-to-Head (or Tail-to-Tail) Chaining • Mixed Chaining • Isomerism in Dienes • Tacticity • Isotactic Polymer • Syndiotactic Polymer • Atactic Polymer • Conformation of Polymer Chains • Random Coil • Planar Zig-Zag • Helical • Mnemonic Rule • Problems

Chapter 3. Polymers in Solution • Technological Importance • Conformation of the Polymer Chain in Solution • Free Joined Chain Model • Free Tetrahedral Rotation Chain Model • Restricted Movement Chain Model • Characteristic Ratio • Expansion Factor • Theta Condition • The Excluded Volume • Polymer Solubility • Basic (Empirical) Rules of Polymer Solubility • Effect of Polymer Chain Type on Solubility • Cohesive Energy Density in Polymers, CED • Hildebrand Solubility Parameter • Generalized or Hansen Solubility Parameter • Methods for Determining the Solubility Parameter • Molar Attraction Constant, G • Solvent Swelling • Polymer Fractionation • Addition of a Non-Solvent • Evaporation of the Solvent • Temperature Reduction • Problems

Chapter 4. Polymer Solid-State Morphology • Introduction • Morphological Models of Polymer Crystallization • Fringed Micelle Model • Folded Chains, Lamellae, or Single Crystal Model • Molecular Chain Packing • Crystalline Structures Derived from the Crystallization Process • Spherulitic Crystallization Structure • Shish-Kebab Crystallization Structure • Interlamellar Links • Unit Cells of Some Semi-Crystalline Polymers • Polyethylene (PE) • Polypropylene (PP) • Polyhexamethylene Adipamide (Nylon 6,6) • Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) • Crystallinity Degree • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity from the Specific Volume • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity from the Density • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity from the Melt Enthalpy • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity from Specific Heat • Factors That Alter the Degree of Crystallinity • Polymer Structural Factors • Chain Linearity • Tacticity • Side Chain Group • Configuration around Double Bonds • Polarity • Stiffness or Flexibility of the Main Chain • Copolymerization • External Factors • Impurities and Additives • Nucleating and Clarifying Agents • Polymeric Second Phase • Processing Conditions • Shear Rate • Cooling Rate • Problems

Chapter 5. Polymer Synthesis • Introduction • Classification of the Polymerization Processes • Number of Monomers • Type of Chemical Reaction • Polymerization Kinetics • Type of Physical Arrangement Methods • Step Polymerization • Characteristics of Step Polymerization • Some Factors Affecting Step Polymerization • Reaction Time and Temperature • Catalyst • Non-Equimolar Addition of the Reagents • Functionality of the Third Reagent • Ways of Stopping Step Polymerization • Chain Polymerization • Free-Radical Chain Polymerization • Initiation • Propagation • Termination • Inhibitors and Retarders • Ionic Polymerization • Cationic Polymerization • Initiation • Propagation • Termination • Anionic Polymerization • Initiation • Propagation • Termination • Ring-Opening Polymerization • Copolymerization • Methods of Polymerization According to the Physical Arrangement • Bulk Polymerization • Solution Polymerization • Suspension Polymerization • Emulsion Polymerization • Degradation • Depolymerization • Chain Scission • Nylon Hydrolysis • Thermo–Mechanical Degradation of Polypropylene • Thermo–Mechanical Degradation of Polyethylene • Loss of Side Groups • Problems

Chapter 6. Polymer Molecular Weight and Distribution • Introduction • Types of Average Molecular Weights • Number Average Molecular Weight (Mn) • Weight Average Molecular Weight (MW) • Viscosity Average Molecular Weight (MV) • z-Average Molecular Weight (MZ) • Methods for Measuring Average Molecular Weights • Number Average Molecular Weight (Mn) • Chain-End Analysis • Colligative Properties • Weight Average Molecular Weight (MW) • Light Scattering • Ultracentrifugation • Viscosity Average Molecular Weight (MV) • Viscosimetry of Dilute Polymer Solutions • z-Average Molecular Weight (MZ) • Molecular Weight Distribution Curve • Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) • Most Probable Molecular Weight Distribution Function • Polycondensation with Linear Chains • Chain Polymerization • Chain Transfer Termination • Combination Termination • Polymerization without Termination • Molecular Weight and Chain Length • Molecular Weight Fractioning Principles • Precipitation from a Polymer Solution • Preparative Size Exclusion Chromatography (Prep-SEC) • Problems

Chapter 7. Polymer Thermal Behavior • Characteristic Transition Temperatures in Polymers • Glass Transition Temperature or Tg • Crystalline Melting Temperature or Tm • Crystallization Temperature or Tc • Other Transition Temperatures sub-Tg • Free Volume Theory • Flory’s Theory for the Reduction of the Melt Temperature • Effect of the Diluent on Tm • Effect of the Polymer Molecular Weight in its TmEffect of the Comonomer Content in the Copolymer’s Tm • Engineering Polymer Temperatures • Main Experimental Techniques for the Determination of Transition Temperatures • Differential Scanning Calorimetry, DSC • Dynamic-Mechanical Thermal Analysis, DMTA • Vicat and HDT Softening Temperatures • Effect of the Chemical Structure on Tg and TmStructural Symmetry of the Main Chain • Rigidity/Flexibility of the Main Chain • Polarity of the Main Chain • Steric Effect of the Main Chain Side Group • Side Group Volume • Side Group Length • Residual Double Bond Isomerism • Copolymerization • Homogeneous, Miscellaneous, or Single-Phase Systems • Heterogeneous, Immiscible, or Polyphasic Systems • Polymer Molecular Weight • Branching • Influence of External Factors on Tg and Tm • Summary of the Factors Affecting Crystallinity, Tg, and Tm • Problems

Chapter 8. Polymer Crystallization Kinetics • Crystal Nucleation • Nucleation Rate • Crystal Growth • Total Isothermal Crystallization • Avrami’s Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics Theory • Measuring Crystallization Kinetics via Dilatometry • Measuring Crystallization Kinetics via Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) • Isothermal Crystallization Rate • Equilibrium Melting Temperature • Problems

Chapter 9. Polymer Mechanical Behavior • Introduction • Polymer Viscoelasticity • Linear Viscoelasticity Models • Maxwell Model • Voigt Model • Combined Maxwell–Voigt Model • Creep and Stress Relaxation • Rubber Elasticity • Considerations upon Polymer Mechanical Testing • Testing Recording Stress–Strain Curves • Testing under Impact • Fracture Characteristics • Brittle Fracture Mechanism • Ductile Fracture Mechanism in Toughened Systems • Shear Yielding • Crazing • Parameters Affecting Polymer Mechanical Behavior • Chemical Structure • Degree of Crystallinity • Molecular Weight • Molecular Orientation • Peterlin Molecular Reorientation Model • Characterization of Molecular Orientation via Dichroic Ratio in Polarized Infrared • Copolymerization • Plasticization • Elastomer Toughening • Fiber Reinforcing • Superposition Principles • Boltzmann Stress Superposition Principle • Time–Temperature Superposition Principle • Reptation Theory • Polymer Physical States • Physico–Chemical Methods for Polymer Transformation • Physical Methods • Orientation • Plasticization • Solubilization • Foaming • Reinforcing • Toughening • Chemical Methods • Mastication • Cross-linking • Grafting • Oxidation • Problems

Chapter 10. Experiments in Polymer Science • Identification of Plastics and Rubbers • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Observation of Polymer Solubilization • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Observation of the Precipitation of a Polymer Solution • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Identification of Polymers by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Characterization of Polymers by Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy • Introduction • Determination of Cis/Trans/Vinyl Isomer Concentration in Polybutadiene • Objective • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Quantification of the Components in a Binary Polymer Blend • Objective • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Characterization of Polymer Molecular Orientation via the IR Dichroic Ratio • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Observation of the Spherulitic Crystallization in Polymers • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Supplementary Activities • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity by Density Measurements • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Preparation of the Liquid Mixture Having the Same Density as the Sample • Pycnometry • Results • Questions • Determination of the Degree of Crystallinity by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Free-Radical Bulk Polymerization of Methyl Methacrylate • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Supplementary Activities • Determination of the Viscosity Average Molecular Weight • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Determination of the Melt Flow Index (MFI) • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Determination of Vicat Softening Temperature • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions • Determination of Cross-linking Density in Vulcanized Rubbers • Objective • Introduction • Materials • Equipment • Method • Results • Questions

Chapter 11. Further Reading

Chapter 12. Appendix A • Terminology • Abbreviations

Chapter 13. Appendix B

Index


About the Author:

Sebastião Canevarolo is a full professor at the Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar), Brazil since 2015. He obtained his Ph.D. at the Institute of Polymer Technology of the Loughborough University of Technology, England, and, after completing a postdoctoral program at the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare of the University of Salerno, he became a researcher fellow of the CNPq (Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development).


Target Audience:

This book will help professors, undergraduate and graduate students of polymer science and technology courses as well as engineering (materials, chemical, civil, food), chemistry, and physics. It is also aimed at engineers and technologists.

 
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