Title Public Examinations Examined
Author Thomas Kellaghan, Vincent Greaney
ISBN 9781464814181
List price USD 45.00
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 352
Book size 178 x 254 mm
Publishing year 2020
Original publisher The World Bank
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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High-stakes public examinations exert a dominant influence in most education systems. They affect both teacher and student behavior, especially at the middle and upper levels of secondary education. The content of past examinations tends to dictate what is taught and how it is taught and, more important, what is learned and how it is learned. By changing aspects of these examinations, especially their content and format, education systems can have a strong positive impact on teacher behavior and student learning, help raise student achievement levels, and better prepare students for tertiary-level education and for employment. Examination agencies, many of which have followed the same procedures over decades, can learn from the successes and failures of other systems.

This book addresses current issues related to the development, administration, scoring, and usage of these high-stakes public examinations, identifying key issues and problems related to examinations in many emerging market economies as well as in advanced economies. The book’s primary audience consists of public examination officials on national, regional, and state examination boards, but the book should also be of interest to senior education policy makers concerned with certification and learning achievement standards, to academics and researchers interested in educational assessment, to governmental and education agencies responsible for student selection, and to professionals at development organizations.





About the Authors

Chapter 1: Introduction • Overview • Public Examinations, Classroom Assessment, and System Assessment • Variety in Examination Systems • Major Public Examination Traditions • The Contents of This Book • Notes • References

Chapter 2: Characteristics and Functions of Public Examinations • Introduction • Characteristics of Public Examinations • Functions of Examinations • Differences among Examination Systems • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 3: A Brief History of Written Examinations • Introduction • Examinations in Imperial China • Examinations in Europe, 1400– • Public Examinations in Developing Economies • Examinations in Former Socialist Countries • Examinations in Latin America • Examinations in the United States • International Examinations • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 4: The Construction and Scoring of Public Examinations • Introduction • The Examination Syllabus • Constructing the Examination • The Form of Examinee Response • Question Paper Production and Printing • Marking of Answer Scripts • Use of Information Technologies • Conclusion • References

Chapter 5: Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Examinations • Introduction • Advantages of Public Examinations • Disadvantages of Public Examinations • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 6: The Provision of Feedback From Examinations • Introduction • Guidance Feedback • Incentive Feedback • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 7: The Validity of Public Examinations • Introduction • Content Validity • Other Aspects of Validity • Threats to Validity • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 8: The Reliability of Public Examinations • Introduction • Factors Associated with Examinees • Factors Associated with Examiners • Factors Associated with the Subject and How It Is Scored • Improving Examination Marker Reliability • Conclusion • Note • References

Chapter 9: Standards In Public Examinations • Introduction • Comparability of Grades in Different Subjects or Examinations • Change in Standards over Time • Dealing with Comparability Problems • Defining Performance Standards • Public Confidence • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 10: Equity Issues In Public Examinations • Introduction • Gender • Socioeconomic Status • Place of Residence • Type of School • Ethnic or Language Group Membership • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 11: The Integrity of Public Examinations and Malpractice • Introduction • Forms of Malpractice • Frequency of Malpractice • Reasons for Malpractice • Strategies to Discourage and Detect Malpractice • Ways to Control and Prevent Malpractice • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 12: Public Examinations Provision For Candidates With Disabilities or Diverse Educational Needs • Introduction • Identification of Students with Disabilities or Special Needs and Implications of Accommodation • Exemptions • Types of Accommodation • Issues Arising from the Provision of Accommodations for Disabilities or Diverse Educational Needs • Conclusion • References

Chapter 13: The Role of School-Based Assessment • Introduction • Strategies to Reduce the Burden of Examinations • Dimensions of School-Based Assessment • Arguments in Favor of School-Based Assessment • Arguments against School-Based Assessment • Addressing Problems in School-Based Assessment • Conclusion • Notes • References

Chapter 14: Considerations For Examination Reform • Introduction • Examination Reform Considerations • Options for Improving Examination Items and Questions • Options for Improving Administration and Reporting • Characteristics of a Good Examination System • Conclusion • Notes • References

Glossary of Acronyms and Technical Terms



About the Authors:

Thomas Kellaghan was director of the Educational Research Centre at St. Patrick’s College, Dublin, from 1966 to 2009. He also worked at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria and at the Queen’s University in Belfast, from which he obtained his PhD. He was author, coauthor, or editor of more than two hundred professional publications, founding editor of the Irish Journal of Education, and an elected fellow of the International Academy of Education. His areas of research interest covered educational assessment, including national and international assessments and public examinations; educational disadvantage; home-school relationships; teacher education; and educational policy. He served as president of the International Association for Educational Assessment from 1997 to 2001. Over the course of his career, he worked on educational assessment issues and educational reform programs in a number of African countries, in South Asia, and in Latin America. In 2004 he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the National University of Ireland for his contribution to education. Thomas died in March 2017.

Vincent Greaney has been a primary school teacher, textbook author, research fellow at the Educational Research Centre in Dublin, and visiting Fulbright professor at Western Michigan University. He obtained a PhD in educational evaluation, measurement, and research from Boston College. A former board member of the International Reading Association, in 1996 he was elected to its Reading Hall of Fame. After joining the World Bank staff in 1990, he worked on educational projects in Sub-Saharan Africa, South and East Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Eastern and Central Europe and implemented a training program on national assessments of educational achievement. His extensive list of publications covers topics related to educational assessment, teacher education, reading, and promotion of social cohesion through textbook reform. He is a member of the Board of Directors of the Canadian Organization for Development through Education and of the Expert Council of the Russia Education Aid for Development program.


Target Audience:

This book will be useful to people interested in education quality, reform and standards. The book’s primary audience consists of public examination officials on national, regional, and state examination boards.

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