Title A History of Modern Europe, 4/e
Subtitle From the Renaissance to the Present
Author John Merriman
ISBN 9780393667363
List price USD 107.50
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 1262
Book size 159 x 235 mm
Publishing year 2019
Original publisher W. W. Norton & Company
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Viva Books Private Limited
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
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The leading text, beloved for authoritative coverage and narrative flair

Students and instructors alike praise A History of Modern Europe for its authoritative coverage from the Renaissance to the present day. Written in Merriman’s signature narrative style, the book is brightened with humor and biographical sketches. The Fourth Edition reflects the latest scholarship while placing special emphasis on the theme of war and society. A new full-color design features a completely redrawn map program and new pedagogical and teaching tools.


List of Maps



Part 1. Foundations

Chapter 1. Medieval Legacies and Transforming Discoveries • Medieval Continuities • The Fragmentation of Europe • At the Crossroads of Cultures • The Structure of Society • Feudalism • A Subsistence Economy • Religion and Popular • Culture • The Emergence of Early Modern Europe • A Rising Population • An Expanding Economy • The Growth of Towns • Municipal Liberties • The Emergence of Sovereign States • Developing State Structures • Limits to State Authority • Transforming Discoveries • Gunpowder, Warfare, and Armies • The Printing Press and the Power of the Printed Word • Exploration and Conquest in the New World: The Origins of European Empire • Conclusion

Chapter 2. The Renaissance • The City-States of the Italian Peninsula • Thriving Economies • Social Structure • Renaissance Political Life • Florence: Anatomy of a Renaissance City • A Dynamic Culture • The Rediscovery of Classical Learning • From Scholasticism to Humanism • The Renaissance and Religion • The Renaissance Man and Woman • Renaissance Art • Architecture • Patronage and the Arts • Renaissance Artists • Painting and Sculpture • High Renaissance Style • The End of the Renaissance • Foreign Invasion • Economic Decline • Machiavelli • The Decline of the City-States • Impulses Elsewhere

Chapter 3. The Two Reformations • The Northern Renaissance • Northern Art and Humanism • Erasmus’s Humanistic Critique of the Church • The Roots of the Reformation • The Great Schism (1378-1417) • Heretical and Spiritual Movements • The Challenge of Conciliarism to Papal Authority • Clerical Abuses and Indulgences • Martin Luther • Social Background of the Reformation in the German States • Urban Centers of Reform • The Process of Reform • The Peasants’ Revolt • The Spread of the Reformation • Divisions within Christendom • Charles V and the Protestants • The Peace of Augsburg • The Reformation in Switzerland and France • Zwingli and Reform • Radical Reformers • Jean Calvin and Reform • Calvinist Conversions • The English Reformation • Henry VIII and the Break with Rome • After the Break with Rome • The Catholic Reformation • Retreat to Dogmatism • Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits • The Council of Trent • Putting Its House in Order • Culture during the Two Reformations • Print Culture • Lay Education and Reading • Popular Rituals and Festivals • The Role of Women in the Reformation • The Baroque Style • The Legacy of the Two Reformations

Chapter 4. The Wars of Religion • The Wars of Religion in Sixteenth-Century France • A Strengthened French Monarchy • Economic Crisis • French Calvinists and the Crisis of the French State • Henry of Navarre • Statemaking • Louis XIII and the Origins of Absolute Rule • The Thirty Years’ War (1618 -1648) • Factionalism in the Holy Roman Empire • The Origins of the Thirty Years’ War • Conflict in Bohemia • The Expansion of the Conflict • The Danish Period • The Swedish Interlude • The Armies of the Thirty Years’ War • The Wars of Religion and Dynastic Struggles (1635-1648) • The Treaty of Westphalia (1648)

Part 2. Statemaking

Chapter 5. The Rise of the Atlantic Economy: Spain and England • Economic Expansion • Increased Agricultural Productivity • Expansion of Trade • The Global Economy • Price Revolution and Depression • The Rise of Spain • Centralization and the Spanish Monarchy • The Spanish Economy • The Expansion of the Spanish Empire • The Age of Philip II • The Rise of England • The House of Tudor • Religious Settlement and Conflict under Elizabeth I • Elizabeth’s Statemaking • Demographic and Economic Expansion • English Society in the Tudor Period • The Quest for Public Order • The Elizabethan Theater • An Emerging Empire of Trade • The Decline of Spain • The Dutch Revolt • Spanish Economic Decline • An Empire Spread Too Thin • Conclusion

Chapter 6. England and the Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century • Conflicts in Stuart England • Conflicts between James I and Parliament • Religious Divisions • Charles I and Parliament Clash • The English Civil War • Moving toward Conflict • Taking Sides • Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army • Divisions within Parliament • Radicals Parliament’s Victory • The Puritan Republic and Restoration • The Glorious Revolution • Stuart Religious Designs • The “Protestant Wind” • The Bill of Rights • The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic • The Structure of the Dutch State • Expanding Economy • Tolerance and Prosperity • Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture • The Decline of the Dutch Republic • Conclusion

Chapter 7. The Age of Absolutism, 1650-1720 • Theories of Absolutism • Characterizing Absolute Rule • Monarchs and Nobles • Expanding State Structures • Absolutism and Warfare • Absolutism and Religion • Monumentalism in Architecture and Art • Absolutism in France • The Fronde: Taming “Overmighty Subjects” • Mercantilism under Louis XIV • The Absolute Louis XIV • Louis XIV at Versailles • Louis XIV’s Persecution of Religious Minorities • The Limits of French Absolutism • The Balance of Power • The Origins of International Law • The Habsburg Monarchy in Early Modern Europe • The Rise of Prussia in Early Modern Europe • The Russian and Swedish Empires • The Expansion of Muscovy • Peter the Great Turns Westward • A Rival Swedish Empire • The Commonwealth of Poland-Lithuania • Louis XIV’s Dynastic Wars • The Modern State

Part 3. New Cultural and Political Horizons

Chapter 8. The New Philosophy of Science • Changing Views of the Universe • Ancient and Medieval Science • Copernicus Challenges the Aristotelian View of the Universe • The Universal Laws of the Human Body • Brahe and Kepler Explore the Heavens • Francis Bacon and the Scientific Method • Galileo and Science on Trial • Descartes and Newton: Competing Theories of Scientific Knowledge • Descartes and Deductive Reasoning • The Newtonian Synthesis • The Culture of Science • The Diffusion of the Scientific Method • Women and the Emerging Culture of Science • Academies of Science • The Uses of Science • Science and Religion • Consequences of the Scientific Revolution               

Chapter 9. Enlightened Thought and the Republic of Letters • Enlightened Ideas • Intellectual Influences on Enlightened Thought • The Republic of Ideas • Montesquieu • Voltaire • Diderot • Rousseau • The Diffusion and Expansion of the Enlightenment • Religious Enthusiasm and Skepticism about Religion • Expansion of the Cultural Base • The Arts • Music • The Dissemination of Enlightened Ideas • Enlightened Absolutism • Reform of Jurisprudence • Educational Reform • Religious Toleration • Frederick the Great • Rural Reforms • Currents of the Late Enlightenment • Enlightened Thought and Economic Freedom • German Idealism • The Enlightenment and Public Opinion • Forbidden Publications and the Undermining of Authority • Legacy of the Enlightenment

Chapter 10. Eighteenth-Century Economic and Social Change • The Social Order • Nobles • The British Landed Elite • The Clergy • The “Middling Sort” • Peasants • The Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution • Stagnation and Growth in Agriculture • Population Growth • Manufacturing: Guilds and Domestic Industry • Inventions • Expanding British Economy • Expanding Continental Economies • Social Changes • The Growth of Towns and Cities • Social Movement within the Elite • The Changing Condition of the Poor • Social Control • Protecting Property in Britain • Subordination and Social Control • A Century of Contrasts

Chapter 11. Eighteenth-Century Dynastic Rivalries and Politics • The Eighteenth-Century State System • Global Rivalries • The Hanoverians and the Stuarts in Great Britain • The Prussian-Austrian Dynastic Rivalry in Central Europe • Conflicts between the Great Powers • The War of the Austrian Succession • The Seven Years’ War • Armies and Their Tactics in the Eighteenth Century • Navies • Political Change in Great Britain • Expanding Central Government in Britain • The Role of the House of Commons • The Development of Party Politics in the 1760s: Whigs and Tories • The Rise of British Nationalism • Challenges to Established Authority • British Radicals • American Revolutionaries • The Parlements and the French Monarchy • Other Movements for Reform • Declining Power, Disappearing State: The Ottoman Empire and Poland • The Decline of Ottoman Turkish Power in Europe • The Partitions of Poland • Conclusion

Part 4. Revolutionary Europe, 1789-1850

Chapter 12. The French Revolution • The Old Regime in Crisis • Long-Term Causes of the French Revolution • The Financial Crisis • The Revolution Begins • Convoking the Estates-General • Storming of the Bastille • The Great Fear and the Night of August 4 • Consolidating the Revolution • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen • “The Baker, the Baker’s Wife, and the Baker’s Little Boy” • Reforming the Church and Clergy • The Reforms of 1791 • Resistance and Revolution • The Flight to Varennes • War and the Second Revolution • Reactions to the French Revolution in Europe • A Second Revolution • Counter-Revolution • The Terror • The Final Stages of the Revolution • Thermidor • The Directory: Politics and Society • Instability • The Eighteenth Brumaire • Perspectives on the French Revolution • European Responses to the Revolution

Chapter 13. Napoleon and Europe • Napoleon’s Rise to Power • The Young Bonaparte • Napoleon and the Revolution • Consolidation of Power • Establishment of the Consulate • The Concordat • Napoleon’s Leadership • Wars of Conquest and Empire • The Corsican Warrior • The Foundations of the French Empire • Institutional Foundations: Imperial Centralization • Legal Foundations: The Napoleonic Code • Social Foundations: The Imperial Hierarchy • The Tide Turns against Napoleon • The Continental System • The Peninsular War • Stirrings of Nationalism in Napoleonic Europe • Military Reforms in Prussia and Austria • The Empire’s Decline and the Russian Invasion • The Defeat of Napoleon • Monarchical Restoration and Napoleon’s Return • The Bourbon Restoration • The 100 Days • Napoleon’s Legacy

Chapter 14. The Industrial Revolution • Preconditions for Transformation • Demographic Explosion • The Expanding Agricultural Base • Trains and Steamboats • A Variety of National Industrial Experiences • In the Vanguard: Britain’s Era of Mechanization • Industrialization in France • Industrialization in the German States • Sparse Industrialization in Southern and Eastern Europe The Middle Classes • Diversity of the Middle Classes • The Entrepreneurial Ideal and Social Mobility • Rising Professions • Middle-Class Culture • Marriage and Family • Separate Spheres and the Cult of Domesticity • A Culture of Comfort • Education • Religion • The Ambiguities of Liberalism: Voluntarism versus State Intervention • Impact of the Industrial Revolution • Continuities on the Land • Urbanization • On the Move • Industrial Work and Workers • Women and Families in the Industrial Age • Child Labor • The Laboring Poor • Class Consciousness • Workers’ Associations and Social Protest • The Origins of European Socialism • Utopian Socialists • Practical Socialists • Karl Marx and the Origins of “Scientific Socialism” • Conclusion

Chapter 15. Liberal Challenges to Restoration Europe • The Post-Napoleonic Settlement • The Treaty of Paris • Diplomatic Maneuvering at the Congress of Vienna • The Congress System • The Concert of Europe • Restoration Europe • The Restoration of Monarchs, Nobles, and Clergy • Conservative Ideology • Liberalism • Liberals and Politics • Laissez-Faire • Romanticism • Conservative Origins • Romantic Literature and Painting • Romantic Music • Stirrings of Revolt • Liberal Revolts in Spain, Portugal, and Italy • Stirrings in Germany • Cracks in the Congress of Europe: The Greek Revolt • The Decembrist Revolt in Russia • France: The Bourbon Restoration and the Revolution of 1830 • Other Liberal Assaults on the Old Order • Independence for Belgium • Liberal Successes in Switzerland • Nationalist Dreams • Revolt in Poland • Uprisings in Italy and Spain • German Nationalism in Central Europe • Crisis and Compromise in Great Britain • Religious and Electoral Reform • The Reform Bill of 1832 • Chartism and the Repeal of the Corn Laws • Conclusion

Chapter 16. The Revolutions of 1848 • Revolutionary Mobilization • The February Revolution in France • Revolution in the German States • Revolution in the Habsburg Lands • Revolution in the Italian States • The Elusive Search for Revolutionary Consensus • Crisis in France • The Frankfurt Parliament • Counter-Revolution • Counter-Revolution in Habsburg Central Europe • Prussian-Austrian Rivalry • The Counter-Revolution in the Italian States • The Agony of the French Second Republic • The Legacy of 1848

Part 5. The Age of Mass Politics

Chapter 17. The Era of National Unification • The Political Unification of Italy • Leadership for Italian Unification • Alliances and Warfare to Further Italian Unification • Garibaldi and the Liberation of Southern Italy • Italy Unified • Limits to Unification • Italian Politics • The Rise of Italian Nationalism • The Unification of Germany • William I, Bismarck, and the Resolution of the Constitutional Crisis • Alliances and Warfare to Establish Prussian Leadership • The North German Confederation • The Franco-Prussian War and German Unification • Nationalist versus Internationalist Movements • William II and German Nationalism • National Awakenings in the Habsburg Lands • Diversity and Cohesion in the Habsburg Empire • Repression of Nationalism in the Habsburg Empire • Political Crisis and Foreign Policy Disasters • Creation of the Dual Monarchy • Ethnic Tensions and Nationalist Movements in the Dual Monarchy • Conclusion

Chapter 18. Three Powers in the Age of Liberalism: Parliamentary Britain, Tsarist Russia, and Republican France • The Crimean War • Victorian Britain • The Victorian Consensus • Victorian Political Life • The Reform Bill of 1867 • Other Victorian Reforms • Mass Politics Come to Britain • Irish Home Rule • New Contours in British Political Life • Tsarist Russia • Stirrings of Reform in Russia • The Emancipation of the Serfs • The Expansion of the Russian Empire • Nihilists and Populists • Alexander III’s Empire • Unrest, Reform, and Revolution • Lenin and the Bolsheviks • The Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) • The Revolution of 1905 France: Second Empire and Third Republic • The Authoritarian Empire • Economic Growth • The “Liberal Empire” • The Franco-Prussian War and the Siege of Paris • The Paris Commune • Republican France • Monarchists and Republicans • The Third Republic • General Boulanger and Captain Dreyfus • The Radical Republic • Conclusion

Chapter 19. Rapid Industrialization and Its Challenges, 1870-1914 • The Second Industrial Revolution • New Technology and Scientific Discoveries • The Electric and Chemical Revolutions • Regional Variations • Travel and Communications • Further Scientific Discoveries: “A Boundless Future” and Its Uncertainties • Social Change • Demographic Boom • Improving Standards of Living • Migration and Emigration • The Changing World of Work • Industrialization and the Working-Class Family • Teeming Cities • Social Mobility • Cultural Changes: Education and Religion • Education • The Decline of Religious Practice • The Consumer Explosion • The New Leisure • Sports in Mass Society • Conclusion

Chapter 20. Political and Cultural Responses to a Rapidly Changing World • State Social Reform • The Trade Union Movement • Socialists • Christian Socialism • Anarchists • Syndicalists • The Quest for Women’s Rights • Cultural Ferment • Realism • Impressionism • Social Theorists’ • Analyses of Industrial Society • Nietzsche’s Embrace of the Irrational • Freud and the Study of the Irrational • Avant-Garde Artists and Writers and the Rapid Pace of Modern Life • The Avant-Garde’s Break with Rationalism • Conclusion

 Chapter 21. The Age of Europe an Imperialism • From Colonialism to Imperialism • A Colonial Legacy • The “New Imperialism” and the Scramble for Africa • British and French Imperial Rivalry • Germany and Italy Become Imperial Powers • Standoff in the Sudan: The Fashoda Affair • The British in South Africa and the Boer War • The European Powers in Asia • India, Southeast Asia, and China • Japan and China: Contrasting Experiences • The United States in Asia • Domination of Indigenous Peoples • Social Darwinism • Technological Domination and Indigenous Subversion • Imperial Economies • Colonial Administrations • Assessing the Goals of European Imperialism • The “Civilizing Mission” • The Economic Rationale • Imperialism and Nationalism • Conclusion

Part 6. Cataclysm

Chapter 22. The Great War • Entangling Alliances • Irreconcilable Hatreds • The Alliance System • Germany Risks Being Surrounded • Anglo-German Rivalry • British-French Rapprochement • The First Moroccan Crisis (1905) The Europe of Two Armed Camps, 1905-1914: Great Powers and their Allies • The Balkan Tinderbox • Instability in Turkey • The Bosnian Crisis of 1908 • The Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) • The Balkan Wars • The Final Crisis • Assassination in Sarajevo • The Ultimatum • The Schlieffen Plan • “A Jolly Little War” • The Outbreak of War • The Changing Nature of War • Trench Warfare • War in the Air and on the Seas • The Home Front in a Time of Total War • The War Rages On • The Eastern Front • The War in the Middle East, Africa, and the Far East • The War in the Colonies and Colonials in the Conflict in Europe • The Western Front • Futility and Stalemate • Soldiers and Civilians • The Final Stages of the War • The United States Enters the War • Russia Withdraws from the War • Offensives and Mutinies • The German Spring Offensive • The Fourteen Points and Peace • The Impact of the War

Chapter 23. Revolutionary Russia and the Soviet Union • War and Revolution • Russia at War • The February Revolution • The Provisional Government and the Petrograd Soviet • The Army • The Revolution Spreads • Lenin’s Return • The July Days • The Kornilov Affair • The October Revolution • The Peace of Brest-Litovsk • Civil War • The Soviet Union • Democratic Centralism • The New Economic Policy

Chapter 24. The Elusive Search for Stability in the 1920s • The End of the War • Revolution in Germany and Hungary • The Treaty of Versailles • Independent Poland • Settlements in Eastern Europe • National and Ethnic Challenges • The National Question and the Successor States • Colonial and National Questions • Ireland • Economic and Social Instability • Social Turmoil • The Left and the Origins of the Welfare State • Political Instability • Germany’s Fragile Weimar Republic • The Established Democracies: Britain and France • Artists and Intellectuals in the Waste Land

Chapter 25. The Europe of Economic Depression and Dictatorship • Economies in Crisis • The Great Depression • Gradual European Economic Revival • The Dynamics of Fascism • Mussolini and Fascism in Italy • Hitler and the Rise of the Nazis in Germany • Right-Wing Authoritarian Movements in Central and Eastern Europe • Fascism in Austria • The Popular Front in France against the Far Right • Fascism in the Low Countries and Britain • Hitler’s Third Reich • The Collapse of the Weimar Republic • The Nazi State • Hitler’s New Reich and the Jews • Hitler’s Foreign Policy • The Führer and the Duce • Remilitarization and Rearmament • The Soviet Union under Stalin • Five-Year Plans • Soviet Culture • “Darkness at Noon”: Stalin’s Purges • The Spanish Civil War • Social and Political Instability • The Struggle between Loyalists and Nationalists • Conclusion

Chapter 26. World War II • The Coming of World War II • The Axis • German Aggression and British and French Appeasement • The Unholy Alliance • The War in Europe Begins • The German Invasion of Poland • The “Phony War” • The War in the Frozen North • The Fall of France • The Battle of Britain • A Global War • Organizing Total War • Hitler’s Allies • The German Invasion of Russia • Japan’s Attack on the United States • Hitler’s Europe • The Nazi “New European Order” • The “Final Solution” • Collaboration • Resistance • Against Hitler in Germany • Germany on the Defensive • The War in North Africa • Hitler’s Russian Disaster • The Tide Turns • The Big Three • The Allied Invasion of Italy • Germany’s Balkan Allies • The D-Day Invasion of France • Allied Victory • Victory in Europe • The Defeat of Japan • Conclusion

Part 7. Europe in the Post-War Era

Chapter 27. Rebuilding Divided Europe • In the Wake of Devastation • The Potsdam Conference The United Nations and Cold War Alliances • Confronting Turmoil and Collaborators • Punishing Collaborators • Economic Recovery, Prosperity, and Cooperation • Economic Cooperation • The Post-War Baby Boom • The Green Revolution • Welfare States • Post-War Politics in the West • Political Realignments • Divided Germany • Eastern Europe under the Soviet Shadow • The Soviet Union and Its Satellites in the Post-War Era • Post-Stalin Soviet Union • Changing Contours of Life • Intellectual Currents in the Post-War Era • Advances for Women • Catholicism in Post-War Europe • An Urban World • Living Better • Oil and the Global Economy • Conclusion

 Chapter 28. The Cold War and the End of European Empires • Cold War • The Korean War (1950-1953) • Stirrings in Eastern Europe • Soviet-Western Tensions • Sino-Soviet Rivalry • The Brezhnev Era • Nuclear Weapons and Superpower Tensions • Decolonization • Decolonization in South and Southeast Asia • Britain and the Middle East • The Suez Canal Crisis • French Decolonization • The Fight for Independence in Algeria • Decolonization in Sub-Saharan Africa • Conclusion

Chapter 29. Transitions to Democracy and the Collapse of Communism • Politics in a Changing Western World • Student Protests Challenge Gaullist France • Shifts in Western European Politics after 1986 • The Transition to Democracy in Southern Europe • Religious and Ethnic Conflicts • The Fall of Communism • Resistance to Soviet Domination • The Gorbachev Era • Transition to Parliamentary Government in Poland and Hungary • The Collapse of the Berlin Wall and of East German Communism • The “Velvet Revolution” in Czechoslovakia • Revolutions in Bulgaria, Romania, and Albania • The Collapse of the Soviet Union • The Disintegration of Yugoslavia • Challenges in the Post-Communist World • Conclusion

Chapter 30. Global Challenges: The War Against Terror and the Uncertainties of a New Age • Creating a Single Europe • The Origins of the European Union • Creating a Single Market • Backlash against a European Identity • Europe and the United States • Globalization • Opposition to Globalization • Massive Immigration to Europe • Growing Immigration • Regional Ethic Political Tensions • Terrorism • European Responses to U.S. Policy • Continuing Conflict in the Middle East • The Return of Right-Wing Populism and Authoritarianism • Poland and Hungary • Xenophobic Populism Elsewhere in Europe • The Russian Challenge • Conclusion

Further Readings



About the Author:

John Merriman is the Charles Seymour Professor of History at Yale University. A specialist in nineteenth century French history, Merriman earned his Ph. D at the University of Michigan. He is the author of many books, including The Margins of City Life: Explorations on the French Urban Frontier, 1815–1851; Red City: Limoges and the French Nineteenth Century; The Agony of the Republic: The Repression of the Left in Revolutionary France, 1848–1851; and, most recently, The Stones of Balazuc: A French Village in Time (Norton, 2002). He regularly teaches the survey of modern European history at Yale.

Target Audience:

Students and academicians of european history.


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