Title Essential Cell Biology, 5/e (International Student Edition)
Author Alberts, Hopkin, Johnson, Morgan, Raff, Roberts & Walter
ISBN 9780393680393
List price USD 157.50
Price outside India Available on Request
Original price
Binding Paperback
No of pages 750
Book size 216 x 279 mm
Publishing year 2019
Original publisher W. W. Norton & Company
Published in India by .
Exclusive distributors Vision Works Publishing
Sales territory India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, .
Status New Arrival
About the book


The gold standard textbook, thoroughly updated—now with online homework.

This text features lively, clear writing and exceptional illustrations, making it the ideal textbook for a first course in both cell and molecular biology. Thoroughly revised and updated, the Fifth Edition maintains its focus on the latest cell biology research. For the first time ever, Essential Cell Biology will come with access to Smartwork5, Norton’s innovative online homework platform, creating a more complete learning experience.



About the Authors

Chapter 1. Cells: The Fundamental Units of Life • Unity and Diversity of Cells • Cells Vary Enormously in Appearance and Function • Living Cells All Have a Similar Basic Chemistry • Living Cells Are Self-Replicating Collections of Catalysts • All Living Cells Have Apparently Evolved from the Same Ancestral Cell • Genes Provide Instructions for the Form, Function, and Behavior of Cells and Organisms • Cells Under the Microscope • The Invention of the Light Microscope Led to the Discovery of Cells • Light Microscopes Reveal Some of a Cell’s Components • The Fine Structure of a Cell Is Revealed by Electron Microscopy • The Prokaryotic Cell • Prokaryotes Are the Most Diverse and Numerous Cells on Earth • The World of Prokaryotes Is Divided into Two Domains: Bacteria and Archaea • The Eukaryotic Cell • The Nucleus Is the Information Store of the Cell • Mitochondria Generate Usable Energy from Food Molecules • Chloroplasts Capture Energy from Sunlight • Internal Membranes Create Intracellular Compartments with Different Functions • The Cytosol Is a Concentrated Aqueous Gel of Large and Small Molecules • The Cytoskeleton Is Responsible for Directed Cell Movements • The Cytosol Is Far from Static • Eukaryotic Cells May Have Originated as Predators • Model Organisms • Molecular Biologists Have Focused on E. coli • Brewer’s Yeast Is a Simple Eukaryote • Arabidopsis Has Been Chosen as a Model Plant • Model Animals Include Flies, Worms, Fish, and Mice • Biologists Also Directly Study Humans and Their Cells • Comparing Genome Sequences Reveals Life’s Common Heritage • Genomes Contain More Than Just Genes • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 2. Chemical Components of Cells • Chemical Bonds • Cells Are Made of Relatively Few Types of Atoms • The Outermost Electrons Determine How Atoms Interact • Covalent Bonds Form by the Sharing of Electrons • Some Covalent Bonds Involve More Than One Electron Pair • Electrons in Covalent Bonds Are Often Shared Unequally • Covalent Bonds Are Strong Enough to Survive the Conditions Inside Cells • Ionic Bonds Form by the Gain and Loss of Electrons • Hydrogen Bonds Are Important Noncovalent Bonds for Many Biological Molecules • Four Types of Weak Interactions Help Bring Molecules Together in Cells • Some Polar Molecules Form Acids and Bases in Water • Small Molecules In Cells • A Cell Is Formed from Carbon Compounds • Cells Contain Four Major Families of Small Organic Molecules • Sugars Are both Energy Sources and Subunits of Polysaccharides • Fatty Acid Chains Are Components of Cell Membranes • Amino Acids Are the Subunits of Proteins • Nucleotides Are the Subunits of DNA and RNA • Macromolecules in Cells • Each Macromolecules Contains a Specific Sequence of Subunits • Noncovalent Bonds Specify the Precise Shape of a macromolecule • Noncovalent Bonds Allow a Macromolecule to Bind Other Selected Molecules • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 3. Energy, Catalysis, and Biosynthesis • The Use of Energy by Cells • Biological Order Is Made Possible by the Release of Heat Energy from Cells • Cells Can Convert Energy from One Form to Another • Photosynthetic Organisms Use Sunlight to Synthesize Organic Molecules • Cells Obtain Energy by the Oxidation of Organic Molecules • Oxidation and Reduction Involve Electron Transfers • Free Energy and catalysis • Chemical Reactions Proceed in the Direction That Causes a Loss of Free Energy • Enzymes Reduce the Energy Needed to Initiate Spontaneous Reactions • The Free-Energy Change for a Reaction Determines Whether It Can Occur ?G Changes as a Reaction Proceeds Toward Equilibrium • The Standard Free-Energy Change, ?Gº, Makes It Possible to Compare the Energetics of Different Reactions • The Equilibrium Constant Is Directly Proportional ?Gº • In Complex Reactions, the Equilibrium Constant Includes the Concentrations of All Reactants and Products • The Equilibrium Constant Also Indicates the Strength of Noncovalent Binding Interactions • For Sequential Reactions, the Changes in Free Energy Are Additive • Enzyme-catalyzed Reactions Depend on Rapid Molecular Collisions • Noncovalent Interactions Allow Enzymes to Bind Specific Molecules • Activated Carriers and Biosynthesis • The Formation of an Activated Carrier Is Coupled to an Energetically Favorable Reaction • ATP Is the Most Widely Used Activated Carrier • Energy Stored in ATP Is Often Harnessed to Join Two Molecules Together • NADH and NADPH Are Both Activated Carriers of Electrons • NADPH and NADH Have Different Roles in Cells • Cells Make Use of Many Other Activated Carriers • The Synthesis of Biological Polymers Requires an Energy Input • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 4. Protein Structure and Function • The Shape and Structure of Proteins • The Shape of a Protein Is Specified by Its Amino Acid Sequence • Proteins Fold into a Conformation of Lowest Energy • Proteins Come in a Wide Variety of Complicated Shapes • The a Helix and the ß Sheet Are Common Folding Patterns • Helices Form Readily in Biological Structures • ß Sheets Form Rigid Structures at the Core of Many Proteins • Misfolded Proteins Can Form Amyloid Structures That Cause Disease • Proteins Have Several Levels of Organization • Proteins Also Contain Unstructured Regions • Few of the Many Possible Polypeptide Chains Will Be Useful • Proteins Can Be Classified into Families • Large Protein Molecules Often Contain More than One Polypeptide Chain • Proteins Can Assemble into Filaments, Sheets, or Spheres • Some Types of Proteins Have Elongated Fibrous Shapes • Extracellular Proteins Are Often Stabilized by Covalent Cross-Linkages • How Proteins Work • All Proteins Bind to Other Molecules • Humans Produce Billions of Different Antibodies, Each with a Different Binding Site • Enzymes Are Powerful and Highly Specific Catalysts • Enzymes Greatly Accelerate the Speed of Chemical Reactions • Lysozyme Illustrates How an Enzyme Works • Many Drugs Inhibit Enzymes • Tightly Bound Small Molecules Add Extra Functions to Proteins • How Proteins Are Controlled • The Catalytic Activities of Enzymes Are Often Regulated by Other Molecules • Allosteric Enzymes Have Two or More Binding Sites That Influence One Another • Phosphorylation Can Control Protein Activity by Causing a Conformational Change • Covalent Modifications Also Control the Location and Interaction of Proteins • Regulatory GTP-Binding Proteins Are Switched On and Off by the Gain and Loss of a Phosphate Group • ATP Hydrolysis Allows Motor Proteins to Produce Directed Movements in Cells • Proteins Often Form Large Complexes That Function as Machines • Many Interacting Proteins Are Brought Together by Scaffolds • Weak Interactions Between Macromolecules Can Produce Large Biochemical Subcompartments in Cells • How Proteins are Studied • Proteins Can Be Purified from Cells or Tissues • Determining a Protein’s Structure Begins with Determining Its Amino Acid Sequence • Genetic Engineering Techniques Permit the Large-Scale Production, Design, and Analysis of Almost Any Protein • The Relatedness of Proteins Aids the Prediction of Protein Structure and Function • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 5. DNA and Chromosomes • The Structure of DNA • A DNA Molecule Consists of Two Complementary Chains of Nucleotides • The Structure of DNA Provides a Mechanism for Heredity • The Structure of Eukaryotic Chromosomes • Eukaryotic DNA Is Packaged into Multiple Chromosomes • Chromosomes Organize and Carry Genetic Information • Specialized DNA Sequences Are Required for DNA Replication and Chromosome Segregation • Interphase Chromosomes Are Not Randomly Distributed Within the Nucleus • The DNA in Chromosomes Is Always Highly Condensed • Nucleosomes Are the Basic Units of Eukaryotic Chromosome Structure • Chromosome Packing Occurs on Multiple Levels • The Regulation of Chromosome Structure • Changes in Nucleosome Structure Allow Access to DNA • Interphase Chromosomes Contain both Highly Condensed and More Extended Forms of Chromatin • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 6. DNA Replication and Repair • DNA Replication • Base-Pairing Enables DNA Replication • DNA Synthesis Begins at Replication Origins • Two Replication Forks Form at Each Replication Origin • DNA Polymerase Synthesizes DNA Using a Parental Strand as a Template • The Replication Fork is Asymmetrical • DNA Polymerase is Self-correcting • Short Lengths of RNA Act as Primers for DNA Synthesis • Proteins at a Replication Fork Cooperate to Form a Replication Machine • Telomerase Replicates the Ends of Eukaryotic Chromosomes • Telomere Length Varies by Cell Type and with Age • DNA Repair • DNA Damage Occurs Continually in Cells • Cells Possess a Variety of Mechanisms for Repairing DNA • A DNA Mismatch Repair System Removes Replication Errors That Escape Proofreading • Double-Strand DNA Breaks Require a Different Strategy for Repair • Homologous Recombination Can Flawlessly Repair DNA Double-Strand Breaks • Failure to Repair DNA Damage Can Have Severe Consequences for a Cell or Organism • A Record of the Fidelity of DNA Replications and Repair Is Preserved in Genome Sequences • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 7. From DNA to Protein: How Cells Read the Genome • From DNA to RNA • Portions of DNA Sequence Are Transcribed into RNA • Transcription Produces RNA That Is Complementary to One Strand of DNA • Cells Produce Various Types of RNA • Signals in the DNA Tell RNA Polymerase Where to Start and Stop Transcription • Iniatiation of Eukaryotic Gene Transcription Is a Complex Process • Eukaryotic RNA Polymerase Requires General Trancription Factors • Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Processed in the Nucleus • In Eukaryotic, Protein-Coding Genes Are Interrupted by Noncoding Sequences Called lntrons • Introns Are Removed from Pre-mRNAs by RNA Splicing • RNA Synthesis and Processing Takes Place in “Factories” Within the Nucleus • Mature Eukaryotic mRNAs Are Exported from the Nucleus • mRNA Molecules Are Eventually Degraded in the Cytosol • From RNA to Protein • An mRNA Sequence Is Decoded in Sets of Three Nucleotides • tRNA Molecules Match Amino Acids to Codons in mRNA • Specific Enzymes Couple tRNAs to the Correct Amino Acid • The mRNA Message Is Decoded on Ribosomes • The Ribosome Is a Ribozyme • Specific Codons in an mRNA Signal the Ribosome Where to Start and to Stop Protein Synthesis • Proteins Are Produced on Polyribosomes • Inhibitors of Prokaryotic Protein Synthesis Are Used as Antibiotics • Controlled Protein Breakdown Helps Regulate the Amount of Each Protein in a Cell • There Are Many Steps Between DNA and Protein • RNA and the Origins of Life • Life Requires Autocatalysis • RNA Can Store Information and Catalyze Chemical Reactions • RNA Is Thought to Predate DNA in Evolution • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 8. Control of Gene Expression • An Overview of Gene Expression • The Different Cell Types of a Multicellular Organism Contain the Same DNA • Different Cell Types Produce Different Sets of Proteins • A Cell Can Change the Expression of Its Genes in Response to External Signals • Gene Expression Can Be Regulated at Various Steps from DNA to RNA to Protein • How Transcription Is Regulated • Transcription Regulators Bind to Regulatory DNA Sequences • Transcription Switches Allow Cells to Respond to Changes in Their Environment • Repressors Turn Genes Off and Activators Turn Them On • The Lac Operon Is Controlled by an Activator and a Repressor • Eukaryotic Transcription Regulators Control Gene Expression from a Distance • Eukaryotic Transcription Regulators Help Initiate Transcription by Recruiting Chromatin-Modifying Proteins • The Arrangement of Chromosomes into Looped Domains Keeps Enhancers in Check • Generating Specialized Cell Types • Eukaryotic Genes Are Controlled by Combinations of Transcription Regulators • The Expression of Different Genes Can Be Coordinated by a Single Protein • Combinatorial Control Can Also Generate Different Cell Types • The Formation of an Entire Organ Can Be Triggered by a Single Transcription Regulator • Transcription Regulators Can Be Used to Experimentally Direct the Formation of Specific Cell Types in Culture • Differentiated Cells Maintain Their Identity • Post-Transcriptional Controls • mRNAs Contain Sequences That Control Their Translation • Regulatory RNAs Control the Expression of Thousands of Genes • MicroRNAs Direct the Destruction of Target mRNAs • Small Interfering RNAs Protect Cells From Infections • Thousands of Long Noncoding RNAs May Also Regulate Mammalian Gene Activity • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 9. How Genes and Genomes Evolve • Generating Genetic Variation • In Sexually Reproducing Organisms, Only Changes to the Germ Line Are Passed On to Progeny • Point Mutations Are Caused by Failures of the Normal Mechanisms for Copying and Repairing DNA • Mutations Can Also Change the Regulation of a Gene • DNA Duplications Give Rise to Families of Related Genes • Duplication and Divergence Produced the Globin Gene Family • Whole-Genome Duplications Have Shaped the Evolutionary History of Many Species • Novel Genes Can Be Created by Exon Shuffling • The Evolution of Genomes Has Been Profoundly Influenced by Mobile Genetic Elements • Genes Can Be Exchanged Between Organisms by Horizontal Gene Transfer • Reconstructing Life’s Family Tree • Genetic Changes That Provide a Selective Advantage Are Likely to Be Preserved • Closely Related Organisms Have Genomes That Are Similar in Organization as Well as Sequence • Functionally Important Genome Regions Show Up as Islands of Conserved DNA Sequence • Genome Comparisons Show That Vertebrate Genomes Gain and Lose DNA Rapidly • Sequence Conservation Allows Us to Trace Even the Most Distant Evolutionary Relationships • Mobile Genetic Elements and Viruses • Mobile Genetic Elements Encode the Components They Need for Movement • The Human Genome Contains Two Major Families of Transposable Sequences • Viruses Can Move Between Cells and Organisms • Retroviruses Reverse the Normal Flow of Genetic Information • Examining The Human Genome • The Nucleotide Sequences of Human Genomes Show How Our Genes Are Arranged • Differences in Gene Regulation May Help Explain How Animals with Similar Genomes Can Be So Different • The Genome of Extinct Neanderthals Reveals Much about What Makes Us Human • Genome Variation Contributes to Our Individuality—But How? • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 10. Analyzing the Structure and Function of Genes • Isolating And Cloning DNA Molecules • Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA Molecules at Specific Sites • Gel Electrophoresis Separates DNA Fragments of Different Sizes • DNA Cloning Begins with the Production of Recombinant DNA • Recombinant DNA Can Be Copied Inside Bacterial Cells • An Entire Genome Can Be Represented in a DNA Library • Hybridization Provides a Sensitive Way to Detect Specific Nucleotide Sequences • DNA Cloning By PCR • PCR Uses DNA Polymerase and Specific DNA Primers to Amplify DNA Sequences in a Test Tube • PCR Can Be Used for Diagnostic and Forensic Applications • Sequencing DNA • Dideoxy Sequencing Depends on the Analysis of DNA Chains Terminated at Every Position • Next-Generation Sequencing Techniques Make Genome Sequencing Faster and Cheaper • Comparative Genome Analyses Can Identify Genes and Predict Their Function • Exploring Gene Function • Analysis of mRNAs Provides a Snapshot of Gene Expression • In Situ Hybridization Can Reveal When and Where a Gene Is Expressed • Reporter Genes Allow Specific Proteins to Be Tracked in Living Cells • The Study of Mutants Can Help Reveal the Function of a Gene • RNA Interference (RNAi) Inhibits the Activity of Specific Genes • A Known Gene Can Be Deleted or Replaced with an Altered Version • Genes Can Be Edited with Great Precision Using the Bacterial CRISPR System • Mutant Organisms Provide Useful Models of Human Disease • Transgenic Plants Are Important for both Cell Biology and Agriculture • Even Rare Proteins Can Be Made in Large Amounts Using Cloned DNA • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 11. Membrane Structure • The Lipid Bilayer • Membrane Lipids Form Bilayers in Water • The Lipid Bilayer Is a Flexible Two-dimensional Fluid • The Fluidity of a Lipid Bilayer Depends on Its Composition • Membrane Assembly Begins in the ER • Certain Phospholipids Are Confined to One Side of the Membrane • Membrane Proteins • Membrane Proteins Associate with the Lipid Bilayer in Different Ways • A Polypeptide Chain Usually Crosses the Lipid Bilayer as an a Helix • Membrane Proteins Can Be Solubilized in Detergents • We Know the Complete Structure of Relatively Few Membrane Proteins • The Plasma Membrane Is Reinforced by the Underlying Cell Cortex • A Cell Can Restrict the Movement of Its Membrane Proteins • The Cell Surface Is Coated with Carbohydrate • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 12. Transport Across Cell Membranes • Principles of Transmembrane Transport • Lipid Bilayers Are Impermeable to Ions and Most Uncharged Polar Molecules • The Ion Concentrations Inside a Cell Are Very Different from Those Outside • Differences in the Concentration of Ions Across a Cell Membrane Create a Membrane Potential • Cells Contain Two Classes of Membrane Transport Proteins: Transporters and Channels • Solutes Cross Membranes by Either Passive or Active Transport • Both the Concentration Gradient and Membrane Potential Influence the Passive Transport of Charged Solutes • Water Moves Across Cell Membranes Down Its Concentration Gradient—a process Called Osmosis • Transporters and Their Functions • Passive Transporters Move a Solute Along Its Electrochemical Gradient • Pumps Actively Transport a Solute Against Its Electrochemical Gradient • The Na+ Pump in Animal Cells Uses Energy Supplied by ATP to Expel Na+ and Bring in K+ • Ca2+ Pumps Keep the Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration Low • Gradient-driven Pumps Exploit Solute Gradients to Mediate Active Transport • The Electrochemical Na+ Gradient Drives the Transport of Glucose Across the Plasma Membrane of Animal Cells • Electrochemical H+ Gradients Drive the Transport of Solutes in Plants, Fungi, and Bacteria • Ion Channels and The Membrane Potential • Ion Channels Are Ion-selective and Gated • Membrane Potential Is Governed by the Permeability of a Membrane to Specific Ions • Ion Channels Randomly Snap Between Open and Closed States • Different Types of Stimuli Influence the Opening and Closing of Ion Channels • Voltage-gated Ion Channels Respond to the Membrane Potential • Ion Channels and Nerve Cell Signaling • Action Potentials Allow Rapid Long-Distance Communication Along Axons • Action Potentials Are Mediated by Voltage-gated Cation Channels • Voltage-gated Ca2+ Channels in Nerve Terminals Convert an Electrical Signal into a Chemical Signal • Transmitter-gated Ion Channels in the Postsynaptic Membrane Convert the Chemical Signal Back into an Electrical Signal • Neurotransmitters Can Be Excitatory or Inhibitory • Most Psychoactive Drugs Affect Synaptic Signaling by Binding to Neurotransmitter Receptors • The Complexity of Synaptic Signaling Enables Us to Think, Act, Learn, and Remember • Light-gated Ion Channels Can Be Used to Transiently Activate or Inactivate Neurons in Living Animals • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 13. How Cells Obtain Energy from Food • The Breakdown and Utilization of Sugars and Fats • Food Molecules Are Broken Down in Three Stages • Glycolysis Extracts Energy from the Splitting of Sugar • Glycolysis Produces both ATP and NADH • Fermentations Can Produce ATP in the Absence of Oxygen • Glycolytic Enzymes Couple Oxidation to Energy Storage in Activated Carriers • Several Types of Organic Molecules Are Converted to Acetyl CoA in the Mitochondrial Matrix • The Citric Acid Cycle Generates NADH by Oxidizing Acetyl Groups to CO2 • Many Biosynthetic Pathways Begin with Glycolysis or the Citric Acid Cycle • Electron Transport Drives the Synthesis of the Majority of the ATP in Most Cells • Regulation of Metabolism • Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions Are Organized and Regulated • Feedback Regulation Allows Cells to Switch from Glucose Breakdown to Glucose Synthesis • Cells Store Food Molecules in Special Reservoirs to Prepare for Periods of Need • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 14. Energy Generation in Mitochondria and Chloroplasts • Cells Obtain Most of Their Energy by a Membrane-based Mechanism • Chemiosmotic Coupling Is an Ancient Process, Preserved in Present-Day Cells • Mitochondria and Oxidative Phosphorylation • Mitochondria Are Dynamic in Structure, Location, and Number • A Mitochondrion Contains an Outer Membrane, an Inner Membrane, and Two Internal Compartments • The Citric Acid Cycle Generates High-Energy Electrons Required for ATP Production • The Movement of Electrons Is Coupled to the Pumping of Protons • Electrons Pass Through Three Large Enzyme Complexes in the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane • Proton Pumping Produces a Steep Electrochemical Proton Gradient Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane • ATP Synthase Uses the Energy Stored in the Electrochemical Proton Gradient to Produce ATP • The Electrochemical Proton Gradient Also Drives Transport Across the Inner Mitochondrial Membrane • The Rapid Conversion of ADP to ATP in Mitochondria Maintains a High ATP/ADP Ratio in Cells • Cell Respiration Is Amazingly Efficient • Molecular Mechanisms of Electron Transport and Proton Pumping • Protons Are Readily Moved by the Transfer of Electrons • The Redox Potential Is a Measure of Electron Affinities • Electron Transfers Release Large Amounts of Energy • Metals Tightly Bound to Proteins Form Versatile Electron Carriers • Cytochrome c Oxidase Catalyzes the Reduction of Molecular Oxygen • Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis • Chloroplasts Resemble Mitochondria but Have an Extra Compartment—the Thylakoid • Photosynthesis Generates—and Then Consumes—ATP and NADPH • Chlorophyll Molecules Absorb the Energy of Sunlight • Excited Chlorophyll Molecules Funnel Energy into a Reaction Center • A Pair of Photosystems Cooperate to Generate both ATP and NADPH • Oxygen Is Generated by a Water-Splitting Complex Associated with Photosystem II • The Special Pair in Photosystem I Receives its Electrons from Photosystem II • Carbon Fixation Uses ATP and NADPH to Convert CO2 into Sugars • Sugars Generated by Carbon Fixation Can Be Stored as Starch or Consumed to Produce ATP • The Evolution of Energy-Generating Systems • Oxidative Phosphorylation Evolved in Stages • Photosynthetic Bacteria Made Even Fewer Demands on Their Environment • The Lifestyle of Methanococcus Suggests That Chemiosmotic Coupling Is an Ancient Process • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 15. Intracellular Compartments and Protein Transport • Membrane-Enclosed Organelles • Eukaryotic Cells Contain a Basic Set of Membrane-enclosed Organelles • Membrane-enclosed Organelles Evolved in Different Ways • Protein Sorting • Proteins Are Transported into Organelles by Three Mechanisms • Signal Sequences Direct Proteins to the Correct Compartment • Proteins Enter the Nucleus Through Nuclear Pores • Proteins Unfold to Enter Mitochondria and Chloroplasts • Proteins Enter Peroxisomes from both the Cytosol and the Endoplasmic Reticulum • Proteins Enter the Endoplasmic Reticulum While Being Synthesized • Soluble Proteins Made on the ER Are Released into the ER Lumen • Start and Stop Signals Determine the Arrangement of a Transmembrane Protein in the Lipid Bilayer • Vesicular Transport • Transport Vesicles Carry Soluble Proteins and Membrane Between Compartments • Vesicle Budding Is Driven by the Assembly of a Protein Coat • Vesicle Docking Depends on Tethers and SNAREs • Secretory Pathways • Most Proteins Are Covalently Modified in the ER • Exit from the ER Is Controlled to Ensure Protein Quality • The Size of the ER Is Controlled by the Demand for Protein Folding • Proteins Are Further Modified and Sorted in the Golgi Apparatus • Secretory Proteins Are Released from the Cell by Exocytosis • Endocytic Pathways • Specialized Phagocytic Cells Ingest Large Particles • Fluid and Macromolecules Are Taken Up by Pinocytosis • Receptor-mediated Endocytosis Provides a Specific Route into Animal Cells • Endocytosed Macromolecules Are Sorted in Endosomes • Lysosomes Are the Principal Sites of Intracellular Digestion • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 16. Cell Signaling • General Principles Of Cell Signaling • Signals Can Act over a Long or Short Range • A Limited Set of Extracellular Signals Can Produce a Huge Variety of Cell Behaviors • A Cell’s Response to a Signal Can Be Fast or Slow • Cell-Surface Receptors Relay Extracellular Signals via Intracellular Signaling Pathways • Some Intracellular Signaling Proteins Act as Molecular Switches • Cell-Surface Receptors Fall into Three Main Classes • Ion-Channel-Coupled Receptors Convert Chemical Signals into Electrical Ones • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors • Stimulation of GPCRs Activates G-Protein Subunits • Some Bacterial Toxins Cause Disease by Altering the Activity of G Proteins • Some G Proteins Directly Regulate Ion Channels • Many G Proteins Activate Membrane-bound Enzymes That Produce Small Messenger Molecules • The Cyclic AMP Signaling Pathway Can Activate Enzymes and Turn On Genes • The Inositol Phospholipid Pathway Triggers a Rise in Intracellular Ca2+ • A Ca2+ Signal Triggers Many Biological Processes • A GPCR Signaling Pathway Generates a Dissolved Gas That Carries a Signal to Adjacent Cells • GPCR-Triggered Intracellular Signaling Cascades Can Achieve Astonishing Speed, Sensitivity, and Adaptability • Enzyme-Coupled Receptors • Activated RTKs Recruit a Complex of Intracellular Signaling Proteins • Most RTKs Activate the Monomeric GTPase Ras • RTKs Activate PI 3-Kinase to Produce Lipid Docking Sites in the Plasma Membrane • Some Receptors Activate a Fast Track to the Nucleus • Some Extracellular Signal Molecules Cross the Plasma Membrane and Bind to Intracellular Receptors • Plants Make Use of Receptors and Signaling Strategies That Differ from Those Used by Animals • Protein Kinase Networks Integrate Information to Control Complex Cell Behaviors • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 17. Cytoskeleton • Intermediate Filaments • Intermediate Filaments Are Strong and Ropelike • Intermediate Filaments Strengthen Cells Against Mechanical Stress • The Nuclear Envelope Is Supported by a Meshwork of Intermediate Filaments • Linker Proteins Connect Cytoskeletal Filaments and Bridge the Nuclear Envelope • Microtubules • Microtubules Are Hollow Tubes with Structurally Distinct Ends • The Centrosome Is the Major Microtubule-organizing Center in Animal Cells • Microtubules Display Dynamic Instability • Dynamic Instability Is Driven by GTP Hydrolysis • Microtubule Dynamics Can Be Modified by Drugs • Microtubules Organize the Cell Interior • Motor Proteins Drive Intracellular Transport • Microtubules and Motor Proteins Position Organelles in the Cytoplasm • Cilia and Flagella Contain Stable Microtubules Moved by Dynein • Actin Filaments • Actin Filaments Are Thin and Flexible • Actin and Tubulin Polymerize by Similar Mechanisms • Many Proteins Bind to Actin and Modify Its Properties • A Cortex Rich in Actin Filaments Underlies the Plasma Membrane of Most Eukaryotic Cells • Cell Crawling Depends on Cortical Actin • Actin-binding Proteins Influence the Type of Protrusions Formed at the Leading Edge • Extracellular Signals Can Alter the Arrangement of Actin Filaments • Actin Associates with Myosin to Form Contractile Structures • Muscle Contraction • Muscle Contraction Depends on Interacting Filaments of Actin and Myosin • Actin Filaments Slide Against Myosin Filaments During Muscle Contraction • Muscle Contraction Is Triggered by a Sudden Rise in Cytosolic Ca2+ • Different Types of Muscle Cells Perform Different Functions • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 18. The Cell-Division Cycle • Overview Of The Cell Cycle • The Eukaryotic Cell Cycle Usually Includes Four Phases • A Cell-Cycle Control System Triggers the Major Processes of the Cell Cycle • Cell-Cycle Control Is Similar in All Eukaryotes • The Cell-Cycle Control System • The Cell-Cycle Control System Depends on Cyclically Activated Protein Kinases Called Cdks • Different Cyclin–Cdk Complexes Trigger Different Steps in the Cell Cycle • Cyclin Concentrations Are Regulated by Transcription and by Proteolysis • The Activity of Cyclin–Cdk Complexes Depends on Phosphorylation and Dephosphorylation • Cdk Activity Can Be Blocked by Cdk Inhibitor Proteins • The Cell-Cycle Control System Can Pause the Cycle in Various Ways • G1 Phase • Cdks Are Stably Inactivated in G1 • Mitogens Promote the Production of the Cyclins That Stimulate Cell Division • DNA Damage Can Temporarily Halt Progression Through G1 • Cells Can Delay Division for Prolonged Periods by Entering Specialized Nondividing States • S Phase • S-Cdk Initiates DNA Replication and Blocks Re-Replication • Incomplete Replication Can Arrest the Cell Cycle in G2 • M Phase • M-Cdk Drives Entry into Mitosis • Cohesins and Condensins Help Configure Duplicated Chromosomes for Separation • Different Cytoskeletal Assemblies Carry Out Mitosis and Cytokinesis • M Phase Occurs in Stages • Mitosis • Centrosomes Duplicate to Help Form the Two Poles of the Mitotic Spindle • The Mitotic Spindle Starts to Assemble in Prophase • Chromosomes Attach to the Mitotic Spindle at Prometaphase • Chromosomes Assist in the Assembly of the Mitotic Spindle • Chromosomes Line Up at the Spindle Equator at Metaphase • Proteolysis Triggers Sister-Chromatid Separation at Anaphase • Chromosomes Segregate During Anaphase • An Unattached Chromosome Will Prevent Sister-Chromatid Separation • The Nuclear Envelope Re-forms at Telophase • Cytokinesis • The Mitotic Spindle Determines the Plane of Cytoplasmic Cleavage • The Contractile Ring of Animal Cells Is Made of Actin and Myosin Filaments • Cytokinesis in Plant Cells Involves the Formation of a New Cell Wall • Membrane-enclosed Organelles Must Be Distributed to Daughter Cells When a Cell Divides • Control Of Cell Numbers and Cell Size • Apoptosis Helps Regulate Animal Cell Numbers • Apoptosis Is Mediated by an Intracellular Proteolytic Cascade • The Intrinsic Apoptotic Death Program Is Regulated by the BcI2 Family of Intracellular Proteins • Apoptotic Signals Can Also Come from Other Cells • Animal Cells Require Extracellular Signals to Survive, Grow, and Divide • Survival Factors Suppress Apoptosis • Mitogens Stimulate Cell Division by Promoting Entry into S Phase • Growth Factors Stimulate Cells to Grow • Some Extracellular Signal Proteins Inhibit Cell Survival, Division, or Growth • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 19. Sexual Reproduction and Genetics • The Benefits Of Sex • Sexual Reproduction Involves both Diploid and Haploid Cells • Sexual Reproduction Generates Genetic Diversity • Sexual Reproduction Gives Organisms a Competitive Advantage in a Changing Environment • Meiosis and Fertilization • Meiosis Involves One Round of DNA Replication Followed by Two Rounds of Nuclear Division • Duplicated Homologous Chromosomes Pair During Meiotic Prophase • Crossing-Over Occurs Between the Duplicated Maternal and Paternal Chromosomes in Each Bivalent • Chromosome Pairing and Crossing-Over Ensure the Proper Segregation of Homologs • The Second Meiotic Division Produces Haploid Daughter Nuclei • Haploid Gametes Contain Reassorted Genetic Information • Meiosis Is Not Flawless • Fertilization Reconstitutes a Complete Diploid Genome • Mendel and the Laws of Inheritance • Mendel Studied Traits That Are Inherited in a Discrete Fashion • Mendel Disproved the Alternative Theories of Inheritance • Mendel’s Experiments Revealed the Existence of Dominant and Recessive Alleles • Each Gamete Carries a Single Allele for Each Character • Mendel’s Law of Segregation Applies to All Sexually Reproducing Organisms • Alleles for Different Traits Segregate Independently • The Behavior of Chromosomes During Meiosis Underlies Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance • Genes That Lie on the Same Chromosome Can Segregate Independently by Crossing-Over • Mutations in Genes Can Cause a Loss of Function or a Gain of Function • Each of Us Carries Many Potentially Harmful Recessive Mutations • Genetics as an Experimental Tool • The Classical Genetic Approach Begins with Random Mutagenesis • Genetic Screens Identify Mutants Deficient in Specific Cell Processes • Conditional Mutants Permit the Study of Lethal Mutations • A Complementation Test Reveals Whether Two Mutations Are in the Same Gene • Exploring Human Genetics • Linked Blocks of Polymorphisms Have Been Passed Down from Our Ancestors • Polymorphisms Provide Clues to Our Evolutionary History • Genetic Studies Aid in the Search for the Causes of Human Diseases • Many Severe, Rare Human Diseases Are Caused by Mutations in Single Genes • Common Human Diseases Are Often Influenced by Multiple Mutations and Environmental Factors • Genome-wide Association Studies Can Aid the Search for Mutations Associated with Disease • We Still Have Much to Learn about the Genetic Basis of Human Variation and Disease • Essential Concepts • Questions

Chapter 20. Cell Communities: Tissues, Stem Cells, and Cancer • Extracellular Matrix and Connective Tissues • Plant Cells Have Tough External Walls • Cellulose Microfibrils Give the Plant Cell Wall Its Tensile Strength • Animal Connective Tissues Consist Largely of Extracellular Matrix • Collagen Provides Tensile Strength in Animal Connective Tissues • Cells Organize the Collagen They Secrete • Integrins Couple the Matrix Outside a Cell to the Cytoskeleton Inside It • Gels of Polysaccharides and Proteins Fill Spaces and Resist Compression • Epithelial Sheets and Cell Junctions • Epithelial Sheets Are Polarized and Rest on a Basal Lamina • Tight Junctions Make an Epithelium Leakproof and Separate Its Apical and Basolateral Surfaces • Cytoskeleton-linked Junctions Bind Epithelial Cells Robustly to One Another and to the Basal Lamina • Gap Junctions Allow Cytosolic Inorganic Ions and Small Molecules to Pass from Cell to Cell • Stem Cells And Tissue Renewal • Tissues Are Organized Mixtures of Many Cell Types • Different Tissues Are Renewed at Different Rates • Stem Cells and Proliferating Precursor Cells Generate a Continuous Supply of Terminally Differentiated Cells • Specific Signals Maintain Stem-Cell Populations • Stem Cells Can Be Used to Repair Lost or Damaged Tissues • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Provide a Convenient Source of Human ES-like Cells • Mouse and Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Can Form Organoids in Culture • Cancer • Cancer Cells Proliferate Excessively and Migrate Inappropriately • Epidemiological Studies Identify Preventable Causes of Cancer • Cancers Develop by an Accumulation of Somatic Mutations • Cancer Cells Evolve, Acquiring an Increasing Competitive Advantage • Two Main Classes of Genes Are Critical for Cancer: Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes • Cancer-critical Mutations Cluster in a Few Fundamental Pathways • Colorectal Cancer Illustrates How Loss of a Tumor Suppressor Gene Can Lead to Cancer • An Understanding of Cancer Cell Biology Opens the Way to New Treatments • Essential Concepts • Questions




About the Authors:

Bruce Alberts received his PhD from Harvard University and is Professor of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco. For 12 years, he served as President of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (1993-2005).

Karen Hopkin received her PhD in biochemistry from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and is a science writer in Somerville, Massachusetts. She is a regular columnist for The Scientist and a contributor to Scientific American’s daily podcast, “60-Second Science.”

Alexander Johnson received his PhD from Harvard University and is Professor of Microbiology and Immunology and Director of the Biochemistry, Cell Biology, Genetics, and Developmental Biology Graduate Program at the University of California, San Francisco.

David Morgan received his PhD from the University of California, San Francisco , and is Professor of the Department of Physiology as well as the Vice Dean for Research for the School of Medicine at UCSF.

Martin Raff received his MD from McGill University and is at the Medical Research Council Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology and the Biology Department at University College London.

Keith Roberts received his PhD from the University of Cambridge and is Emeritus Professor at the University of East Anglia, Norwich.

Peter Walter received his PhD from The Rockefeller University in New York and is Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, and an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

Target Audience:

This is an ideal textbook for a course in cell and molecular biology.


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